No Gym Required: How Seniors Can Exercise During Lockdown | Health News

No Gym Required: How Seniors Can Exercise During Lockdown | Health News

  • January 31, 2021

(HealthDay)

SUNDAY, Jan. 31, 2021 (HealthDay News) — During the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s crucial for homebound older adults to find safe and effective ways to exercise, an expert says.

At-home workouts can help strengthen muscles, improve balance, increase blood flow to the heart, boost the immune system and reduce stress, according to Summer Cook, an associate professor of kinesiology and an expert on senior fitness at the University of New Hampshire, in Durham.

“People in their 20s and 30s often set health goals like running marathons or losing weight, but as people age there is a point where they shift their priorities to maintaining health, not necessarily for athletics or looks but for improving the ability to do their daily activities,” she said in a university news release.

Being inactive can worsen existing health problems, so it’s crucial for older adults to find ways to get extra exercise beyond their typical daily activities.

“My goal is to keep older adults as independent as possible as they age,” Cook said. “And while most seniors find themselves not getting out of the house as much these days, it’s important for them to know that there are still plenty of ways to work on their health at home.”

The first thing older adults should do is talk to their doctor about any exercise plan to ensure that it is safe and effective. The focus should be on low-impact exercises that help with balance, flexibility and strength, Cook advised.

Take walks with friends while following COVID-19 safety guidelines (masks and social distancing). Look for online or Zoom exercise classes specifically for older adults, she suggested.

Along with the physical benefits, exercising with others outdoors or through online classes can help ease social isolation that older adults may be experiencing during the pandemic.

It’s important to start slow and build slowly to avoid injury and boredom, Cook said. In general, physical activity is safe and healthy for seniors and can help with conditions like heart disease, diabetes and arthritis.

SOURCE: University of New Hampshire, news release, Jan. 21, 2021

Copyright © 2021 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Tips from east Asian medicine to boost your immune system

Tips from east Asian medicine to boost your immune system

  • January 31, 2021

This time of year, we are all looking for ways to strengthen our immune system. On top of everything else going on, it is flu season after all!

According to traditional East Asian medicine, the surface of the body is an important part of your immune system. Your skin helps protect you from environmental invasions such as wind, cold, damp, and harmful viruses, and bacteria. For example, on a winter day if you do not wear a coat, there is an increased chance of catching a cold. When the immune system is not strong and appropriate clothing is not worn, then wind and cold may enter your body, via the skin.

When this occurs the first symptom is often feeling chilled. Chills can alternate with a fever as it progresses. As the wind and cold move into the lungs, symptoms may evolve into a runny nose, sore throat, cough, and phlegm. This time of year, keeping your skin and lungs protected from the cold aids your body’s natural defense system. Cover your neck by wearing a scarf or hood and be sure to wear adequate clothing while outside.

In addition to keeping warm, there are many other things you can do at home to support both your lungs and your immune system.

One enjoyable immune booster is taking a bath. Aside from decreasing stress and muscle tension, taking a bath opens your pores to release toxins through the skin. You can add a high-quality essential oil to the water to increase support for the lungs- eucalyptus is great option open the nasal passages.

Another way to strengthen your lungs is through breathing exercises. This will increase your bodies efficiency in perfusing oxygen into your blood stream. Breathing exercises offer several other benefits such as decreased stress, improved sleep, and better energy.

While there are several techniques available, this is my favorite: Breath in naturally, then exhale until you feel you have reached the bottom of your breath – focus your attention on the exhalation rather than the inhalation. Allow your lungs to refill without force. Repeat this a few times throughout the day.

As your technique improves, you will notice that when you inhale, the breath can be felt reaching all the way into your abdomen, instead of staying high in your chest, which is common in everyday shallow breathing.

Dietary therapy is often your best line of defense. According to East Asian Medicine, foods which support the lungs include pears, radishes, turnips, garlic, and aromatic spices. Try fresh ginger and scallions added to a warm broth when you are feeling worn down. It is a delicious and nourishing way to strengthen your immune system. Do your best to stay away from foods which create phlegm in your respiratory system such as refined sugars, dairy products, and fried foods.

Listen to your body. If you feel like you are running on low, slow down and take some time to recuperate.

Your immune system depends on having enough energy to be able to protect you when necessary. This is the time of year to stay cozy and warm, read a good book, incorporate regular restorative exercises, and nourish your body.

NOTE: Christina Crawford is board certified by the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and licensed by the state of New York. Crawford Acupuncture is located at 111 E. Chestnut St. Suite 203 in Rome, NY. She may be reached via call or text at (315) 225-1222 or online at CrawfordAcupuncture.com. Many insurance plans cover acupuncture.

No Gym Required: How Seniors Can Exercise During Lockdown - Consumer Health News

No Gym Required: How Seniors Can Exercise During Lockdown – Consumer Health News

  • January 31, 2021

SUNDAY, Jan. 31, 2021 (HealthDay News) — During the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s crucial for homebound older adults to find safe and effective ways to exercise, an expert says.

At-home workouts can help strengthen muscles, improve balance, increase blood flow to the heart, boost the immune system and reduce stress, according to Summer Cook, an associate professor of kinesiology and an expert on senior fitness at the University of New Hampshire, in Durham.

“People in their 20s and 30s often set health goals like running marathons or losing weight, but as people age there is a point where they shift their priorities to maintaining health, not necessarily for athletics or looks but for improving the ability to do their daily activities,” she said in a university news release.

Being inactive can worsen existing health problems, so it’s crucial for older adults to find ways to get extra exercise beyond their typical daily activities.

“My goal is to keep older adults as independent as possible as they age,” Cook said. “And while most seniors find themselves not getting out of the house as much these days, it’s important for them to know that there are still plenty of ways to work on their health at home.”

The first thing older adults should do is talk to their doctor about any exercise plan to ensure that it is safe and effective. The focus should be on low-impact exercises that help with balance, flexibility and strength, Cook advised.

Take walks with friends while following COVID-19 safety guidelines (masks and social distancing). Look for online or Zoom exercise classes specifically for older adults, she suggested.

Along with the physical benefits, exercising with others outdoors or through online classes can help ease social isolation that older adults may be experiencing during the pandemic.

It’s important to start slow and build slowly to avoid injury and boredom, Cook said. In general, physical activity is safe and healthy for seniors and can help with conditions like heart disease, diabetes and arthritis.

More information

The U.S. National Institute on Aging has more about physical activity.

SOURCE: University of New Hampshire, news release, Jan. 21, 2021

Zionsville Monthly Magazine – Zionsville, Indiana

Connected Workouts Boost Fitness, Health and Accountability During Pandemic

  • January 30, 2021

January 2021

Perhaps you are one of the millions of Americans who have purchased fitness equipment and technology-based fitness tools for their homes last year—both as a way to stay healthy, relieve stress and build a strong immune system throughout the pandemic.

I spoke with Mark Moreland, owner/personal trainer at Body Outfitters Personal Training Studios, to learn more about how he and his staff have been meeting their clients where they are throughout the pandemic and how Body Outfitters is keeping the momentum going into 2021.

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Connected Workouts

Moreland described his studios’ reaction as proactive rather than reactive to the stay-at-home order. Prior to Gov. Holcomb’s lockdown orders last March, Moreland told me that he and his staff had read the tea leaves and had already begun making a “hard pivot” to virtual training.

“It’s been a fun challenge to try to meet people where they are, but that’s what we do all the time at our studios,” Moreland said. “We’re just playing a little bit of an away game right now. We’ve been doing live sessions since March, so we’re dialed in. Our coaching cues are even better, and we know what these [sessions] look and feel like.”

For existing and new clients, Moreland and his staff set up appointments with their clients—either in person or virtually—and develop a customized workout plan.

“We set up [virtual] appointments on Zoom or a preferred platform of your choice,” Moreland explained. “There needs to be a visual aspect of [the session] so that we can get body cues, and then we can offer the three things that we specialize in: knowledge, accountability and the appropriate level of intensity. That’s what we bring to the table.”

In the first session of the live sessions that Body Outfitters offers, Moreland shared that he or any of his trainers begin with assessment workouts and build a plan that helps their clients progress. Your “coach” gives you body cues to ensure proper movement—which is the foundation to any plan customized for you by Body Outfitters trainers.

Body Outfitters Connected Workouts

“We’re going to build a plan for you based on where you are and where you want to be,” Moreland stated. “You don’t need anything super fancy. From an equipment standpoint, most of the [virtual] workouts that I’ve built since last March have one [appropriate] weight. That doesn’t mean we can’t progress those weights down the line, but to be creative and consistent with one piece of equipment—that won’t crush the budget—is a simple start.”

Keeping It Simple and Neutralizing Excuses

Moreland and his staff utilize another tech tool called “True Coach” for their virtual clients. True Coach is an app that allows trainers and clients to connect and be held accountable outside of live sessions.

“We build our programs in True Coach, which by itself doesn’t have value to the client, but we use that to create an account and upload videos and examples,” Moreland shared. “The app also allows us to track when you’ve completed your workout and when you haven’t, so there’s a level of accountability. The difference between this and a live appointment is you can do it whenever you want, and you can do that workout again if you want to. There’s no need to have super unique workouts every time unless that what the client wants.”

Body Outfitters Connected Workouts

Moreland continued, “The other thing that we’re doing to meet people where they are is, we have been posting simple movements for people to do at home with simple equipment on our social media channels. One of the videos that I built for my clients during the lockdown is a stair workout. If you have stairs, that’s all you need for this workout. And if you don’t have stairs, a simple step is all you need.”

Prior to the pandemic, and at least for me personally, not having “time” was the biggest excuse or barrier that kept many from carving out time for working out. Once the virus rampaged the entire planet, people began looking at their health and fitness as a means of surviving and less as an onerous task.

“Most people’s previous excuses have been neutralized,” Moreland said. “Time is not a barrier anymore as many now have a surplus of time. Now that we’ve removed that barrier, it’s about consistency. I would say consistency and fitness are more important than how much it costs and what kind of equipment you have. It’s about doing something regularly enough that your body adjusts to it. That’s true with nutrition as well.”

Create Your Space, Look and Time

For those who want to work out from home and don’t have the advantage of “changing one’s scenery,” instead having to create that mental/physical space within the confines of their home, Moreland talked about identifying your personal “triggers,” creating your workout outfit and carving out time that becomes YOUR care time.

“We all need a trigger,” Moreland admitted. “I own a gym and have been training for 23 years, and I still need a trigger some days when I don’t feel like working out. My ‘trigger’ is putting on my workout clothes. As soon as I put on my workout clothes, it’s almost like putting on a new identity—now I’m ‘Workout Mark.’ Then once I get moving, I start to feel better, and it helps pump up my energy.”

Body Outfitters Is Ready When You Are

For those who are missing in-person sessions and feel comfortable venturing out, Moreland discussed what measures both his Carmel and Zionsville locations have taken that go above and beyond the recommended safety protocols and pandemic restrictions.

“We’re by appointment to begin with, so we have a controlled flow of people,” Moreland stated. “It’s easy for us to stay 6 feet apart, and our coaches and staff wear masks at all times. Our classes and groups are down to a four-person maximum. We have the space to spread people out and give you 8 to 10 feet apart from one another. And our treadmills are more than 6 feet apart.”

Body Outfitters Connected Workouts

Moreland concluded, “We’ve added significant air filtration systems at both of our locations. It kills 99.9% of things that come through the air. I can’t tell you that we are safer than your other gyms, but I can show you how we’re controlling our environment, and then you can choose to participate or not.”

For more information on Body Outfitters and its Carmel and Zionsville locations, visit bodyoutfitters.com.

Experts recommend sugarcane consumption for boosting immunity, preventing cancer, others

Experts recommend sugarcane consumption for boosting immunity, preventing cancer, others

  • January 30, 2021

sugarcane consumption

Some nutrition experts have recommended regular intake of sugarcane to boost immune system and prevent cancer and other diseases.

The experts made the recommendation in an interview with the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Lagos on Saturday.

Mrs Olufunmilola Adewumi, Asst. Chief Nutritionist at the Orile Agege General Hospital, Lagos State, said sugarcane was rich in antioxidants helping to fight infections.

According to Adewumi, raw sugarcane does not contain fats, cholesterol, proteins and sodium.

She added that it contained significant amounts of nutrients including vitamin C, vitamin B2, magnesium, iron, potassium and phosphorus.

Adewumi said that sugarcane juice would be good for hydration, adding that it helped in weight loss, boosting of metabolism, improving digestion, preventing infections, fighting fevers and curing common cold.

“Its alkalinity makes it counteract the effects of hyperacidity, heart and stomach burns; it also helps in preventing cancer.

“It helps to reduce accumulation of bacteria and oil in the pores, thereby preventing acne; it is an excellent source of Alpha Hydroxy Acids such as glycolic acid used as an anti-aging and anti-wrinkle agent in creams.

“It is an effective diuretic: meaning it can keep kidneys functioning optimally, thereby preventing health issues such as kidney stones and urinary tract infections.

“Due to its low glycemic index, diabetic patients can enjoy it without any fear when taken in moderation. It prevents spikes in blood glucose levels,” she said.

Adewumi, however, cautioned against overconsumption of sugarcane juice to avoid stomach upset, dizziness, headaches and unnecessary weight loss.

The nutritionist also cautioned against drinking water after eating fruits, saying it hindered digestion and absorption processes.

She recommended taking of 200ml of sugarcane juice daily and waiting for an hour before drinking water.

Mr Soromtonna Okwuosa, Co-founder, Ambrosia Juice, told NAN that sugarcane juice was a natural instant energy booster.

“Boosting the immune system shouldn’t just be because of COVID-19; there are other diseases out there that are deadly.

“Lots of people don’t know that their lifestyle, what they eat or drink, has serious impacts on their health,” he said.

He said that high immunity would give a person greater chances of surviving a disease.

Okwuosa, who produces sugarcane juice, said that many people did not take it and enjoy its health benefits because of fear of complications from sugar.

He noted that busy individuals regarded as timewasting, sitting and eating the quantities of sugarcane juice they would need.

He recommended extraction of the juice and storing in refrigerators.

He said that adding flavours such as lemon, ginger and orange would give additional health benefits to sugarcane juice.

Okwuosa, however, cautioned against consumption of sugarcane juice after six hours of production if not stored in a refrigerator as it could have turned sour. (NAN)

Vanguard News Nigeria

How Mental Health Can Impact Vaccine Efficacy

How Mental Health Can Impact Vaccine Efficacy

  • January 30, 2021

A discussion surrounding how environmental and behavioral factors can lower immune system responses.

In a recent study published in the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science, investigators demonstrated that depression, loneliness, stress and poor health behaviors can cause the immune system to become weakened, ultimately impacting how it responds to a vaccine.

In a conversation talking about these issues, Annelise Madison, a PhD Candidate in Clinical Psychology at the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at The Ohio State University College of Medicine, discusses the immune systems response.

“What can happen with chronic stress, depression, loneliness, is that there are significant neuroendocrine changes that can happen, and these changes can happen systemically and impact both T-cell and antibody responses to vaccination,” Madison said.

Although this is having a severely negative impact on the population at large, there are many ways one can mitigate these issues.

“The good news is that there are things we can do. For instance, prioritizing sleep shortly before and after you get the vaccine can be so important for immune function. Same with exercise… these are ways in the short term we can boost our vaccine responses.”

Spices and herbs: Potential antiviral preventives and immunity boosters during COVID‐19 - Singh - - Phytotherapy Research

Spices and herbs: Potential antiviral preventives and immunity boosters during COVID‐19 – Singh – – Phytotherapy Research

  • January 30, 2021

1 INTRODUCTION

In December 2019, the people of Wuhan city of the Hubei province of China were suffered from deadly “SARS‐CoV‐2” like pneumonia which was later named coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Wang, Wang, Ye, & Liu, 2020). The COVID‐19 cases are increasing day by day, and there have been 37,423,660 confirmed cases of COVID‐19 in more than 200 countries, including 1,074,817 deaths up to October 12, 2020. (https://covid19.who.int/). The WHO declared it initially a public health emergency of international concern and later pandemic where the COVID‐19 symptoms include fever, sneezing, diarrhea, dry cough, malaise, respiratory distress, and shortness of breath. This virus (SARS‐CoV‐2) is a member of beta‐coronavirus and is found similar to earlier coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‐CoV), in its pathogenicity and clinical spectrum (Gurunathan et al., 2020).

Coronaviruses (CoV) (family: Coronaviridae) are enveloped viruses containing non‐segmented, positive‐stranded genomic RNA. These viruses are pleomorphic particles ranging from 80–220 nm in diameter. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from 26–32 kilobases (MacLachlan & Dubovi, 2017). It has better genome sequence vis‐à‐vis to the SARS‐CoV compared to MERS‐CoV, but the amino acid sequence is different from the other coronavirus, especially in the region of 1ab polyprotein and S‐protein or surface glycoprotein (Kannan, Ali, Sheeza, & Hemalatha, 2020). Their entire replication cycle takes place in the cytoplasm. Coronaviruses can cause several of diseases, including bronchitis, hepatitis, gastroenteritis, and even death in birds, humans, and other animals (Chafekar & Fielding, 2018). The coronavirus has been found to attack all types of people, especially elderly patients having diabetes, hypertension, cerebral infarction, chronic bronchitis, Parkinson’s disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer (Deng & Peng, 2020; Guan et al., 2020; Huang et al., 2020). Coronaviruses (CoVs) enter into the host cell through interaction between the S protein of the virus species and the receptor of the host cell. It will bind with the angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 receptor from the host cell to create a suitable habitation for viral replication (Walls et al., 2020).

Natural‐derived compounds constantly become a worthy therapeutic alternative against several diseases, including viral infections, because they are innately better tolerated in the human body. According to a study, from 1940 to 2014, 49% of all small molecules approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were natural products or their derivates (Newman & Cragg, 2016).

Herbal exploration is continually performed, also to diminish coronavirus‐related disease (Islam et al., 2020). Spices and herbs have been extensively studied globally due to their high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in certain spices and their beneficial effects on humans. Spices contain many bioactive compounds that include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, sulfur‐containing compounds, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic diterpenes, and so on (Devi, Umasanker, & Babu, 2012; Panpatil, Tattari, Kota, & Polasa, 2013; Patra, Jana, Mandal, & Bhattacharjee, 2016; Yashin, Yashin, Xia, & Nemzer, 2017). India has the recognized six systems of medicine, namely, Ayurveda, yoga, Unani, Siddha, naturopathy, and homeopathy (Ravishankar & Shukla, 2007). Ayurveda means the science of life, and it is not only considered as an ethnomedicine but also as a complete medical system for maintaining a healthy and happy living. In India, 20,000 plant species have been recorded, which are having medicinal value, but more than 500 traditional communities use only about 800 plant species for treating different diseases (Dev, 1997).

The outbreak of SARS‐CoV‐2 led to catastrophic events, as there was little specific treatment known to date for coronavirus. So there is a global need to search for the agents that can act against SARS‐CoV‐2 as a precautionary measure which boost our immunity during COVID‐19. Ministry of AYUSH, India has released an advisory on Ayurveda’s immunity promoting methods for self‐care during the COVID‐19 pandemic, which includes the use of spices such as turmeric, cumin, coriander, and garlic that are recommended in cooking. They have also advised taking drink herbal tea/decoction (kadha) made from basil, cinnamon, black pepper, ginger, and raisin once or twice in a day. Natural sugar or fresh lemon juice can be added to enhance the taste. Half teaspoon turmeric powder can be added to 150 mL hot milk (Golden Milk) which can be taken once or twice a day (https://www.ayush.gov.in/). This article summarizes the scientific studies on the antiviral activities of spices and herbs along with their derivatives, mechanism of action, and prospects for future studies along with the survey based analysis.

2 ANTIVIRAL PROPERTIES OF SPICES AND HERBS

Various medicinal plants/herbs are known as immunity boosters, namely, Allium sativum (garlic), Tinosporacordifolia (Giloy), Ocimumbasilicum (Tulsi), and so on (Singh, Tailang, & Mehta, 2016). Different spices such as clove, cinnamon, ginger, black pepper, and turmeric are known as immunity boosters along with their antiviral property (Sharma, Gupta, & Prasad, 2017; Shrivastava, 2020; Srivastava, Chaurasia, Khan, Dhand, & Verma, 2020). In this article, we have highlighted the antiviral potential of common spices and herbs mainly curcumin, cinnamon, ginger, clove, black pepper, garlic, neem, giloy, basil used during COVID‐19 as depicted in Figure 1. Neem leaves contain various compounds such as zinc, quercetin, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E, and so on, which may boost immunity (Garba & Mungadi, 2019).

image
Common spices and herbs with antiviral properties [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

2.1 Curcuma longa L. (turmeric)

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) belongs to the family of ginger (Zingiberaceae) and natively grows in India and Southeast Asia. Rhizomes of this plant contain several secondary metabolites including curcuminoids, sesquiterpenes, steroids, and polyphenol as major bioactive substances (Omosa, Midiwo, & Kuete, 2017). Curcumin is a natural polyphenol that is isolated for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and has been used from centuries as a traditional medicine in Asian countries to treat various disorders. Several studies have shown that the curcumin possesses some pharmacological properties such as anti‐inflammatory, anti‐angiogenic, and anti‐neoplastic, without toxicity. Food Drug Administration (FDA) categorized it as “Generally Recognized as Safe.” A dose of up to 12 g/day of curcumin was known to be safe for human consumption during the clinical trials without showing any side effects (Gupta, Patchva, & Aggarwal, 2013). Shrivastava (2020) reported that the dose of curcumin from 2,500 to 8,000 mg per day for 3 months showed no toxicity from curcumin. Curcumin is a dynamic antiviral that reduces the replication of viruses.

Antiviral activity of curcumin was observed against different viruses including hepatitis viruses, SARS coronavirus, influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and so on, as listed in Table 1. Curcumin’s antiviral activities can also be evidenced by its ability to regulate various molecular targets that contribute to various cellular events, such as transcription regulation, and the activation of cellular signaling pathways (Joe, Vijaykumar, & Lokesh, 2004). Curcumin’s role in targeting various cellular pathways, further inhibiting the growth, and replication of viruses makes it an ideal candidate as an anti‐viral drug. Utomo, Ikawati, and Meiyanto (2020), based on their molecular docking study, reported that the curcumin binds and inhibits the target receptors including SARS‐CoV‐2 protease, spike glycoprotein‐RBD, and PD‐ACE2, which are involved in virus infection.

TABLE 1.
Antiviral properties and mechanism of action of Curcumin (bioactive compound from turmeric)
S.No. Virus Mechanism of action References
1 SARS coronavirus Replication and protease activity inhibitor Wen et al., 2007
2 Herpes virus Gene expression inhibitior Kutluay, Doroghazi, Roemer, & Triezenberg, 2008

3 Hepatitis B virus

Replication inhibitor

cccDNA inhibitor

Rechtman et al., 2010

Wei et al., 2017

4 Hepatitis C virus Entry inhibitor Anggakusuma et al., 2014

5 Human immunodeficiency virus

Protease inhibitor

Integrase inhibitor

Tat protein inhibitor

Balasubramanyam et al., 2004; Ali and Banerjea, 2016
6 Human papilloma virus Gene expression inhibition

Maher et al., 2011;

Mishra et al., 2015

7 Respiratory syncytial virus Entry inhibitor replication and budding inhibition

Yang, Li, & Huang, 2016;

Yang, Li, Li, Wang, & Huang, 2017

8 Chickun gunya virus

Entry inhibitor

Rhein et al., 2016

Mounce, Cesaro, Carrau, Vallet, & Vignuzzi, 2017

9 Dengue virus

Entry inhibitor

Particle production

Inhibition

Chen et al., 2013

Padilla, Rodríguez, Gonzales, Gallego‐g, & Castaño‐o, 2014

10 Zikavirus Entry inhibitor Mounce et al., 2017

11 Influenza A virus Inhibitor of virus uptake, replication and particle production

Dai et al., 2018;

Han, Xu, Guo, & Huang, 2018

2.2 Zingiber officinale (ginger)

Ginger is one of the important medicinal plants which naturally occur in various countries. Ginger, Zingiber officinale, belongs to family Zingiberaceae and the other famous members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal. The plant is indigenous to Southeast Asia and is cultivated in several countries including India. Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) is known as Sunthi in Ayurveda and the description of the plant appears in the old text like Charaka, Sushruta, Vagbhatta, and Chakra‐dutta (Agrahari, Panda, Verma, Khan, & Darbari, 2015). Zanjabeel (Zingiberofficinale) is a famous herbal drug in the conventional Unani system of medicine (Bashir & Afrin, 2019).

Ginger is a rich source of bioactive compounds such as phenolic groups, alkaloids, and steroids, which have medicinal effect. The chief aromatic agent of the rhizome is the zingiberol with analogues such as the shogoals, paradol, and zingerone. In addition to the main bioactive compounds, ginger also contains other sub‐compounds such as 4‐gingerol, 6‐gingerol, 8‐gingerol, 10‐gingerols, 6‐shogaols, and 14‐shogaols (Ali, Blunde, Tanira, & Nemmar, 2008; US Report, 2013). They are reported to demonstrate antiemetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antiarthritic, and anti‐inflammatory activities.

It has been proven by many studies that the ginger and its bioactive compounds showed effective antiviral activity against SARS‐CoV‐2, Influenza virus, Herpes simplex virus, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Chikungunya virus, and so on as shown in Table 2 (Admas, 2020; Dorra et al., 2019; Imanishi et al., 2006; Sulochana et al., 2020). Antiviral activity of lyophilized juice extracted from Zingiber officinale has been studied on the hepatitis C virus at varying concentrations from 5–200 μg/mL. They found that 100 μg/mL dose was effective, which inhibits virus replication that was monitored by amplification of viral RNA segments (Wahab, Adawi, & Demellawy, 2009).

TABLE 2.
Spices and herbs and their derivatives showing antiviral properties
Plant parts, extracts and compounds Virus Mechanism of action Reference
Ginger
ZingiberofficinaleRosc (ZOR) induced conditioned medium Influenza A/Aichi/2/68 (Aichi) virus Via macrophage activation leading to production of TNF‐α. Imanishi et al., 2006

Ginger essential oil Herpes simplex virus Disrupts virus envelope Schnitzler, Koch, & Reichling, 2007

Aquatic extract of fresh ginger Human respiratory syncytial virus Blocking viral attachment and stimulate mucosal cells to secrete IFN‐β Chang, Wanga, Yeh, Shieh, & Chiang, 2013

Hydroethanolic extract of ginger Influenza virus Dorra, EL‐Barrawy, Sallam, & Mahmoud, 2019

Aquatic extract of ginger Chikungunya virus Inhibition of cytopathic effect and cell viability Sulochana, Jangra, Kundu, Yadav, & Kaushik, 2020

Bioactive compounds of ginger (gingerol, geraniol,shogaol, zingiberene, zingiberenol, zingerone) SARS‐CoV‐2 Block the S protein from bindingto the ACE2 receptor or act as an inhibitor for MPro Ahkam, Hermanto, Alamsyah, Aliyyah, & Fatchiyah, 2020

Cinnamon
Procyanidins and butanol extract SARS‐CoV Interference of clathrin‐dependent endocytosis Zhuanga et al., 2009

Water extract Human respiratory syncytial virus Inhibition of viral attachment and internalization Yeh, Chang, Wang, Shieh, & Chiang, 2013

Silver nanoparticles of cinnamon bark Avianinfluenza virus subtype H7N3 Interaction with viral genome and cellular factors or pathways of host cells required for viral replication Fatima, Zaidi, Amraiz, & Afzal, 2016

Cinnamaldehyde T2 bacteriophage Inhibit the replication of T2 bacteriophage Goldstein & Shumaker, 2019

Clove
Eugeniin Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 Inhibiting DNA polymerase Kurokawa et al., 1998

Influenza A virus
Eugenol Inhibit viral replication and reducing infection Reichling, Schnitzler, Suschke, & Saller, 2009

Clove extract Feline calicivirus, a surrogate for human Norovirus Aboubakr et al., 2016

Black pepper
Amide alkaloid Hepatitis B virus Unclear Hao et al., 2012

Extract Coxsackie virus type B3 Cytopathic effect inhibition Mair et al., 2016

Piperine Dengue virus Inhibit Methyltransferase Nag & Chowdhury, 2020

Ebola virus VP35 interferon inhibitory domain
Basil
Ursolic acid Coxsackievirus Infection and replication inhibitor Chiang, Ng, Cheng, Chiang, & Lin, 2005

Enterovirus 71
Essential oil and monoterpenes (camphor and 1,8‐cineol) Bovine viral diarrhoea virus Viral particle inhibitor Kubiça, Alves, Weiblen, & Lovato, 2014

Crude extract and terpenoid H9N2 virus Ghoke et al., 2018

Rosmarinic acid, Oleanolic acid, Ursolic acid and Methyl eugenol SARS‐CoV‐2 Main protease Kumar, 2020

Garlic
Sulfur constituents Coxsackie virus species, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, influenza B Tsai et al., 1985

Ajoene, Allyl alcohol and diallyl disulfide HIV Inhibiting the integrin dependent processes Tatarintsev et al., 1992

Allicin Common cold virus (rhinovirus) Reaction with thiol groups of various enzymes, e.g., alcohol dehydrogenase Ankri & Mirelman, 1999

Allitridin Cytomegalovirus Treg amplification Zhen et al., 2006

Extract of garlic Newcastle disease virus Blocking of attachment of virus to the cell receptors Harazem, Rahman, & Kenawy, 2019

Neem
NIM‐76 Polio virus Inhibits viral multiplication Sai Ram et al., 2000

Aqueous extract Dengue virus type‐2 Inhibits viral multiplication Parida, Upadhyay, Pandya, & Jana, 2002

Bark extract Herpes simplex virus type‐1 Block HSV‐1 entry into cells Tiwari, Darmani, Yue, & Shukla, 2009

Water extracted polysaccharides Bovine herpes virus type‐1 (BoHV‐1) Inhibits virus adsorption to the cell Saha et al., 2010

3‐Deacetyl‐3‐cinnamoyl azadirachtin Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Inhibitor against NS3/4A protease Ashfaq, Jalil, & UlQamar, 2016

Nimbaflavone, Rutin, and Hyperoside Influenza virus Interaction with nucleoprotein Ahmad, Javed, Rao, & Husnain, 2016

Chloroformic leaf extracts Foot and mouth disease virus Younus et al., 2016

Bark extract Newcastle disease virus (NDV) Mahmood, Amir, Abbas, Aslam, & Rafique, 2018

Azadirachtin Hepatitis B virus Interaction with HBV polymerase Parvez et al., 2018
Neem terpenoids SARS‐CoV‐2 Inhibitor of membrane and envelop Borkotoky & Banerjee, 2020

Giloy
Ethanol extract HIV HIV protease inhibitors Rege & Chowdhary, 2014

Silver nanoparticles Chikungunya virus Inhibition on cytopathic effect Sharma et al., 2019

Tinosponone SARS‐CoV‐2 Inhibitor of main protease (3CL pro) Krupanidhi et al., 2020

Tinocordiside SARS‐CoV‐2 Inhibitor of main protease Shree et al., 2020

Ahkam et al. (2020) studied the potential of a few bioactive compounds, namely, gingerenone A, gingerol, geraniol, shogaol, zingiberene, zingiberenol, and zingerone from Ginger as anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 for their interaction to spike and main protease (Mpro) protein based on molecular docking study. They found that the bioactive compounds of ginger block the spike (S) protein from binding to the ACE2 receptor or act as an inhibitor for MPro. The S protein is responsible for SARS‐CoV‐2 entry during the infection which binds with angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor from the host cell to generate an appropriate environment for viral replication (Walls et al., 2020). Main Protease (MPro) is accountable for processing the poly‐proteins pp1a and pp1ab during viral replication (Hilgenfeld, 2014).

2.3 Cinnamomum cassia (cinnanon)

Cinnamomum cassia is an aromatic tree species belonging to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon has been prominently used in traditional Chinese, Indian, Persian, and Unani medicine for a long time. Cinnamon has been used as a popular spice by different countries around the world for thousands of years. Cinnamon is obtained from the bark of its young branches which is widely used all around the world as a daily condiment. It can be also used as a material for medical products and has high economic value. It is used for several conditions such as; flatulence, amenorrhea, diarrhea, toothache, fever, leukorrhea, common cold, and headache. It has also been reported that the regular use of cinnamon averts throat infections (Hajimonfarednejad et al., 2018).

Ojagh, Rezaei, Razavi, and Hosseini (2012) reported that the bark of cinnamon contains 21 chemical compounds, which include cinnamaldehyde (60.41%) and eugenol (3.19%), which have an antibacterial effect. Several scientific studies have shown the antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antitumor, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects of cinnamon (Shen et al., 2012). According to a study, a higher dose of cinnamon (100 mg/kg) drastically increased the phagocytic index, serum immunoglobulin levels, and antibody titer, while its low dose (10 mg/kg) improved serum immunoglobulin levels only. So, the higher dose increases both cell‐mediated and humoral immunity, whereas the low dose showed an effect only on humoral immunity (Niphade, Asad, Chandrakala, Toppo, & Deshmukh, 2009).

Moshaverinia, Rastegarfar, Moattari, and Lavaee (2020) studied the effect of hydro alcoholic extract of cinnamon on herpes simplex virus‐1. They found that the hydroalcoholic extract of cinnamon was effective in reducing the viral titer of HSV‐1 by prevention of viral attachment to cells.

2.4 Syzygium aromaticum (clove)

Clove (Syzygiumaromaticum), belonging to the family Myrtaceae, is globally used in medicine as an antiseptic against contagious diseases due to the antimicrobial activities against oral bacteria. Clove is also used in the food industry due to its antimicrobial activities for increasing shelf‐life. FDA has confirmed the safety of clove buds, clove oil, eugenol, and oleoresins as a food supplement (Vijayasteltar, Nair, Maliakel, Kuttan, & Krishnakumar, 2016). The WHO has given the acceptable daily uptake of clove in humans is 2.5 mg/kg body weight (Ogunwande et al., 2005).

Clove has main phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, hidroxicinamic acids, hidroxibenzoic acids, and hidroxiphenylpropens. The main bioactive component of clove is eugenol (Neveu et al., 2010). Eugenol exhibits broad antimicrobial activities against both Gram‐positive, Gram‐negative, and acid‐fact bacteria, as well as fungi. Cloves are well known also for their antiemetic (relieves nausea and vomiting) and carminative properties. Eugeniin, a compound isolated from the herbal extracts of S. aromaticum, and Geum japonicum, was identified as anti‐Herpes Simplex Virus compound at 5 μg/mL concentration. The inhibitory action of eugeniin is on the viral DNA synthesis by acting as a selective inhibitor of the HSV‐1 DNA polymerase and eugenol on viral replication and reducing infection (Kurokawa et al., 1998; Reichling et al., 2009).

2.5 Piper nigrum (black pepper)

Piper is a member of family Piperaceae and famous as the king of spices due to its pungent smell. Black pepper is grown in many tropical regions like Brazil, Indonesia, and India. Piper nigrum has significant biological properties and its bioactive compounds are used medicine, preservative, and perfumery. Piperine, a dynamic alkaloid of black pepper, is widely used in the as conventional system of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Tibetan). It contains major pungent alkaloid piperine (1‐peperoyl piperidine) which is known to possess many interesting pharmacological properties such as antihypertensive, anti‐Alzheimer’s, antidepressant, antiplatelets, anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, antitumor, antiasthmatic, analgesic, antimicrobial, and so on (Damanhouri & Ahmad, 2014; Jafri et al., 2019; Tiwari, Mahadik, & Gabhe, 2020; Yoo et al., 2019).

Priya and Saravana (2017) evaluated the antiviral activity of Piper nigrumin chloroform and methanolic extracts against vesicular stomatitis virus (an enteric virus) and human parainfluenza virus on human cell lines. They found that the anti‐viral activity of Piper nigrum is higher in chloroform extract due to the presence of higher content ofalkaloids. According to molecular docking based study, it has been found that piperine could inhibit methyltransferase of Dengue virus and VP35 interferon inhibitory domain of Ebola virus comparative to commercial antiviral Ribavirin (Nag & Chowdhury, 2020). Rajagopal, Byran, Jupudi, and Vadivelan (2020) in a docking based study reported that the bioactive compounds from black pepper such as piperdardiine and piperanine are considerably active against COVID‐19, which can be further used for its treatment.

2.6 Ocimum basilicum L. (basil)

Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) is a popular medicinal herb of the family Labiatae which is also known as Sweet basil. The essential oils of these plant materials have been used extensively in food, perfumery, dental and oral products for many years. Basil is a natural spice that possesses antimicrobial activities as many studies have reported. The essential oils of OB have been reported to show activity against a wide range of bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The different components of OB are used as remedies for treating disorders such as viral ocular, respiratory, and hepatic infections. Ocimum basilicum has been reported to contain several of interesting compounds, such as monoterpenoids (carvone, cineole, fenchone, geraniol, linalool, myrcene, and thujone), sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene and farnesol), triterpenoid (ursolic acid), and flavonoid (apigenin) (Chiang et al., 2005).

Numerous studies showed that the aqueous and methanol extract of leaf and seed oil of basil enhances immune response by increasing T‐helper and natural killer cells, lymphocyte count, phagocytic activity, neutrophil count, antibody titer, and so on against the variety of infection as a defense mechanism (Jamshidi & Cohen, 2017; Pattanayak, Behera, Das, & Panda, 2010; Vasudevan, Kashyap, & Sharma, 1999).

Ursolic acid has been reported to inhibit viral infections of herpes simplex virus (HSV)‐1 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as tumor growth (Nonotny, Vachalkova, & Biggs, 2001). Extracts and selected purified components of OB showed a broad spectrum of anti‐DNA and RNA virus activities also. Three phytochemical compounds of tulsi, namely, vicenin, sorientin 4’‐O‐glucoside 2”‐O‐p‐hydroxy‐benzoagte, and ursolic acid showed inhibition of main protease of SARS‐CoV‐2 in a molecular docking study (Shree et al., 2020).

2.7 Allium sativum L. (garlic)

Allium sativum L. (Garlic) family Liliaceae is originally from Asia but it is also cultivated in other countries, namely, China, North Africa (Egypt), Europe, and Mexico. It has been used as a medicinal agent from thousands of years. This plant is a bulb growing to 25–70 cm with flowers used as a spice and flavoring agent for foods. Garlic is having high nutritive value, improves taste of food, and also helps indigestion. Garlic is having a wide range of pharmacological effects with low toxicity such as anthelmintics, anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, and so on (Alam, Hoq, & Uddin, 2016).

Allicin (diallyl‐dithiosulfinate), which is produced by the garlic enzyme alliinase from the alliin, has been known for wide‐antifungal and antiviral activities. The decreasing order of the compounds having virucidal activity in garlic was ajoene, allicin, allyl methyl thiosulfanate, and methyl allyl thiosulfanate (Gebreyohannes & Gebreyohannes, 2013). Antiviral activity of garlic extract has been studied against influenza virus A/H1N1 in cell culture and it was found that it inhibits the virus penetration and proliferation in cell culture (Mehrbod, Amini, & Tavassoti‐Kheiri, 2009). The garlic extract showed inhibitory activity on infectious bronchitis virus (IBV‐a coronavirus) in the chicken embryo (Shojai, Langeroudi, Karimi, Barin, & Sadri, 2016).

2.8 Azadirachta indica (neem)

The neem tree botanically referred to as Azadirachta indica is a fast‐growing evergreen herb belonging to the family Meliaceae. The Indian origin traditional medicinal plant neem has been used to treat several acute and chronic diseases in different parts of Asia and Africa from the ancient period. All parts of the neem tree such as seeds, roots, leaves, flowers, and bark have been used in traditional medicine as household remedies against various human ailments. They exhibit insecticidal, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antimalarial, antibacterial, antiviral, and spermicidal effects (Gupta et al., 2013).

Different terpenoids isolated from the bark of this herb include nimbin, nimbidin, nimbolide, limonoids, β‐sistosterol, 6‐desacetylnimbinene, nimbione, margocin, quercetin, and so on (Alzohairy, 2016). A compound from the extract of neem leaves called “hyperoside” possesses showed potential as a universal drug against influenza strains due to its free radical scavenging property. Hyperoside compound from neem leaf extract along with the chemical drugs LGH, Naproxen, BMS‐885838, and BMS‐883559 showed best results with conserved residues of nucleoprotein of influenza virus (Ahmad et al., 2016). The neem is an extraordinary plant and United Nations has declared neem as the “tree of the 21st century” (United Nations Environment Programme, 2012).

Due to its already proven antiviral properties and effectiveness, many scientists have started research on neem for discovering drugs against SARS‐COV‐2. Natural bioactive compounds, namely, methyl eugenol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid extracted from tulsi and neem act as inhibitors against SARS‐CoV‐2. These bioactive compounds function as effective inhibitors of SARS‐CoV‐2 by binding to the spike glycoprotein, RNA polymerase, and/or its protease which results in the prevention of both viral attachment and replication (Kumar, 2020). Approximately 20 compounds isolated from neem leaves extract showed high binding affinity against COVID‐19 main protease protein which is the key protein for viral replication (Subramanian, 2020). Muralikumar, Ramakrishnamacharya, and Seshachalam (2020) screened ligands from Nimba and Amrita (A. indica and T. cordifolia) known as Nimbamritam in silico to evaluate anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity. They found that the ligand interacted and inhibited the residues of spike protease or Mpro protease of SARS‐CoV‐2.

2.9 Tinospora cordifolia (giloy)

Tinospora cordifolia (giloy) is a member of the family of Menispermaceae and is usually found in Asian counties like India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and China. It is a medicinal plant native to India commonly called Guduchiand used in Ayurvedic formulations as a medicine to treat several diseases. Due to its medicinal importance, T. cordifolia has been highly exploited for commercial purposes and used as an effective medicine for therapies against several diseases such as jaundice, urinary disorder, skin diseases, diabetes, anemia, inflammation, allergic condition, and so on (Kumar, 2020; Sonkamble & Kamble, 2015). Different parts of T. cordifolia, such as leaves, stem, root, flower, seed, and so on, have all the above mentioned pharmacological activities. This plant is also used in Ayurvedic “Rasayanas” to improve the immune system and the body’s resistance against infections.

Pruthvish and Gopinatha (2018) reported that the crude extract of dry stem of T. cordifolia showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus which was evaluated by MTT assay. Chowdhury (2020) evaluated the five phytoconstituents of T. cordifolia (giloy), namely, berberine, b‐sitosterol, coline, tetrahydropalmatine, and octacosanol using molecular dynamics approach. She found that berberine can regulate 3CLpro protein’s function by inhibition and subsequently control viral replication. Tinocordiside, one of the phytochemicals of giloy, showed inhibition of main protease of SARS‐CoV‐2 in a molecular docking study (Shree et al., 2020). Berberine, Isocolumbin, Magnoflorine, and Tinocordiside compounds isolated from Giloy showed high binding efficacy against all the four key SARS‐CoV‐2 target surface glycoprotein (6VSB), receptor‐binding domain (6M0J), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (6M71), and main protease (6Y84) involved in virus attachment and replication (Sagar & Kumar, 2020).

3 METHODOLOGY

A questionnaire based online survey has been conducted on home remedies during COVID‐19 among people (n‐531) of different age groups varying from 13–68 years from countries namely India, United Kingdom, and United States. This survey has covered 17 states (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Telangana, Assam, Kerala, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Chhatisgarh, and Manipur) and two Union territories of India (Delhi and Chandigarh) which include overall 124 cities.

4 RESULTS

Out of 531 people who have participated in the survey, 26.6% of people were tested for COVID‐19 in which 7.8% of people were found positive as shown in Figure 2a. In the survey, we found that people are boosting their immunity in various ways apart from using sanitizers and wearing masks. Most people (93.6%) think that Indian spices and home remedies are helpful in the treatment of coronavirus or other viral infection as well as boosting immunity.

image
Survey Analysis on home remedies during COVID‐19. (a) Coronavirus positive cases. (b) Percentage of people taking kadha. (c) Methods of boosting immunity. (d) Natural immunity boosting products [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

According to the survey, 71.8% of people are taking kadha (basil, cinnamon, black pepper, ginger, and raisin) prescribed by Ayush Ministry, India as shown in Figure 2b. Many people (52.4%) are taking kadha only one time in a day while 24.1% of people are taking kadha two times in a day. People (68.8%) are using ginger, clove, dalchini, black pepper, and tulsi in their kadha. Mostly people (86.1%) think that there is no side effect of kadha, while 13.9% think and experience the side effects of kadha, that is, acidity in the stomach, heartburn, constipation, diarrhea ulcers in mouth, and high blood pressure (especially in senior citizens). According to Ayurveda, if we take kadha in excess, then it can create problems; otherwise there are no side effects.

People (83.1%) are boosting immunity by taking Amla/lemon or other fruits as a rich source of vitamin C. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that serves as an enzyme cofactor for various biochemical and physiological processes in humans (Ngo, Ripper, Cantley, & Yun, 2019). Mostly people are using tulsi drops, chyawanprash, tulsigiloy, and neemgiloy (41.5, 35.7, 29.4, and 26.9%, respectively) for boosting their immunity. Chyawanprash is an Indian Ayurvedic health supplement that is prepared by approximately 50 herbs and spices showing immunity boosting as well as antioxidant properties (Sharma et al., 2019).

5 DISCUSSION

The coronavirus disease is highly transmittable with no effective antiviral therapy to combat the infection (Guan et al., 2020). However, in our study, we highlighted the role of spices and herbs in the treatment of COVID‐19. The survey has been conducted to identify the various home remedies used during COVID‐19, which include many spices and herbs.

As per our survey data, most people are taking kadha only one time a day and they are using ginger, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, and tulsi as main ingredients in kadha. We have analyzed that cinnamon, black pepper, tulsi, and turmeric play vital role against SARS‐CoV‐2 (COVID‐19) as well as other viral infections, which was also supported by some other recent studies mentioned in Tables 1 and 2. Our findings were also well supported by Rastogi, Pandey, and Singh (2020), who proposed the use of Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Curcuma longa (Curcumin), and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) due to their antiviral property. Shrivastava (2020) reported that tulsi leaves increase the level of helper T cells as well as natural killer cells, which helps fight against viral infection. Tulsi is being used for curing pain, pneumonia, diarrhea, cough, and fever of ancient times, which are the common symptoms of COVID‐19 (Goothy et al., 2020). Black pepper provides relaxation from sinusitis and nasal congestion, which are the most common symptoms of COVID‐19 (Pathak & Khandelwal, 2007). Quercetin, a flavonoid present in black pepper, improves the body’s immunity constantly due to its antiviral properties (Yao et al., 2017). Our findings were also well supported by Rajagopal et al. (2020) who recommended the consumption of black pepper and ginger in a daily diet, as it may be helpful in the prevention of coronavirus. According to our survey, people (83.1%) are boosting immunity by taking Amla/lemon or other fruits as a rich source of vitamin C for boosting their immunity. Arandomized controlled trial to carry out in the USA in 167 patients with sepsis‐related ARDS indicated that uptake of ~15 g/day of vitamin C for 4 days may decrease mortality in these patients (Flower et al., 2020). A randomized, controlled clinical trial was also performed on patients with confirmed SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in the ICU at three hospitals in Hubei, China. They have given high‐dose intravenous vitamin C, that is, 12 g of vitamin C/50 mL every 12 h for 7 days and found that the high‐dose intravenous vitamin C may provide a defensive effect without any side effects in critically COVID‐19 patients (Zhang et al., 2020). Utomo et al. (2020) reported that the Citrus sp. exhibits the best prospective as an inhibitor to the development of the SARS‐CoV‐2.

According to ASSOCHAM, India dipstick study spices export from India went up by 23% during COVID‐19 (June 2020) compared with the same month of 2019. Major Indian spices that are transported abroad include pepper, ginger, turmeric, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, nutmeg, spice oils cardamom, and mint products. The main countries where the spices are being imported include the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Australia, UAE, Iran, Singapore, China, and Bangladesh, which shows that the world is benefitted by the magical spices of India.

6 CONCLUSIONS

In the current pandemic scenario, precautions and boosting immunity are one of the best choices to get away from COVID‐19 infection. As per our study, we conclude that the uses of spices and herbs may play a significant role against viral infections. We have analyzed that cinnamon, black pepper, basil, and turmeric play a vital role against SARS‐CoV‐2 (COVID‐19) as well as other viral infections, which was also supported by some other recent studies. In India, people are using spices as well as herbs from ancient times due to their taste, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunity‐boosting properties. Since ages Indians are habitual of taking these natural products that have conferred immunity in the Indian population, which probably is the major cause for low mortality in India. However, the excessive use of spices and herbs may cause various side effects, namely, acidity in the stomach, heartburn, constipation, diarrhea ulcers in the mouth, high blood pressure, and so on. Therefore, detailed studies about the bioactive compounds present in common Indian herb and spices and their effectiveness and mode of action against lethal viruses need to be explored.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to the higher authorities of respective university and institutions for the support in conducting and writing this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to the people who have participated in the COVID‐19 questionnaire survey.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors do not have a conflict of interest.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

Dr. Namita Ashish Singh conceived, conducted, and analyzed the questionnaire results of the survey. Dr. Pradeep Kumar was involved in questionnaire analysis, review and editing. The original draft was written by Jyoti, while Dr. Naresh Kumar was involved in the review and editing of the manuscript.

Vitaae Reviews: Is SANE Vitaae Supplement Ingredients Legit?

Vitaae Reviews: Is SANE Vitaae Supplement Ingredients Legit?

  • January 30, 2021

Vitaae Reviews: Is SANE Vitaae Supplement Ingredients Legit?

Tier 1 – 01/26/21

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Vitaae is a nootropic supplement developed by SANE Laboratories. Its creators claim that this supplement was designed to boost your mental cognition by using a blend of natural ingredients. Vitaae uses clinically studied ingredients to enhance cognitive abilities like memory, focus, and learning skills. If you’re someone suffering from poor memory recall, focus, or critical thinking, Vitaae may be the right supplement for you.

About Vitaae

Vitaae is manufactured by SANE Laboratories, whose CEO is Johnathan Bailor. Bailor is a best-selling author, has produced an award-winning movie, and registered over 26 patents related to health and wellness. His work has been published and endorsed by medical professionals from well-respected clinics like Harvard Medical School, John Hopkins, and the Cleveland Clinic.

Bailor’s extensive research and knowledge into the human body led him to begin SANE Laboratories. SANE’s goal is to manufacture the most effective products that directly address specific health conditions. Vitaae is the result of this research and is one of the most effective cognitive boosters on the market.

How Vitaae Works

According to the official website, most cognitive decline in adults is the result of neurological inflammation, which slows down how fast our neurons can fire and make connections. This brain inflammation can be caused by a number of factors like poor diet, environmental factors, brain injury, and a weakened immune system.

For older adults, brain inflammation is generally caused by the natural aging process. As we get older, our immune system naturally weakens, which allows inflammation to thrive in the brain, gut, and other areas essential for brain function.

Vitaae’s potent formula consists of natural ingredients that eliminate this inflammation and feed the brain with essential nutrients it needs to properly function. Without weeks, Vitaae can help restore cognitive functions like memory, focus, and energy.

Ingredients in Vitaae

Vitaae is comprised of five individual ingredients known to eliminate inflammation and boost cognition. All five of these ingredients are natural ingredients that are designed to provide you with a specific benefit related to cognition and clinically studied & proven to work.

These five potent ingredients include:

Vitamin D – Low vitamin D levels have been linked to increasing autoimmunity as well as increased susceptibility to infection. Taking vitamin D may protect you from foreign, invading orgasms and reduce inflammation caused by these orgasms.

MagnaFolate C® – This patented form of folate is more bioavailable to humans than normal forms of folate. Studies have shown that folic acid plays a crucial role in DNA and protein synthesis. This means that deficiencies can lead to decreased resistance to illness, which is commonly observed in folate-deficient humans.

VitaalMind Proprietary Blend™ – This blend is packed with omega-3 fatty acids which “have the potential to help people with mood disorders” according to Harvard Medical School.

Cognazin™ – Cognizin is a patented form of citicoline and it is clinically proven to help memory recall and brain function. It also supports cellular synthesis, brain energy, and focus.

Microactive CoQ10™ – This patented form of CoQ10 is extremely bioavailable and improves energy, supports the immune system, and possesses potent antioxidant properties. Studies have shown that CoQ10 can play a significant role in boosting physical performance and enhancing immune function. It also helps your brain make neural connections.

Together, these five ingredients work quickly to significantly support better memory recall, focus, energy, and critical thinking. Within weeks, you’ll see how Vitaae can eliminate the frustration from brain fog and poor cognitive functioning.

Benefits of Vitaae

Vitaae is a proven cognitive enhancing supplement, commonly referred to as a nootropic compound. By taking this product, you can experience a real transformation in your cognitive abilities and experience benefits like these:

Improved memory recall: Memory recall requires your neurons in the brain to fire and make connections as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, brain inflammation interferes with this process and makes it much more difficult to recall things. Vitaae uses clinically studied ingredients to reduce this brain inflammation and to help restore normal, fast memory recall.

Better focus & energy: Vitaae helps feed your brain with nutrients that stimulate your energy levels and help you focus. Business professionals, athletes, or really anybody that needs to focus can use Vitaae to focus better and to become more productive. If you’re someone who struggles with a short attention span, you’ll definitely notice this benefit quickly.

Enhances mood: Brain chemicals like dopamine and serotonin help control your mood and make you feel better. Vitaae’s ingredients improve your body’s ability to produce these brain chemicals to boost your mood. This is often why people with depression have found Vitaae to be a nice supplement alternative to antidepressants.

Side Effects of Vitaae

Side effects are always a concern with supplements, but thankfully SANE laboratories have a history of producing safe, effective products. Vitaae is no different. Its’ ingredients have been clinically proven to enhance cognition without posing any negative risks to your health.

In fact, there are zero common side effects of taking Vitaae. Reports of any side effects from people taking Vitaae are few and far between and in the few cases where side effects were reported, symptoms disappeared within a day or two.

You can rest easy knowing Vitaae is a safe, effective supplement. If you are still unsure whether or not this product is truly right for you, then it is highly recommended you consult your doctor or a medical professional before trying this product. Always let your doctor know that you plan on taking a supplement before you try it.

Who Should Take Vitaae?

According to the official website, Vitaae is a clinically proven cognitive enhancer and “anti-aging breakthrough” that can help anyone at any stage of life think clearer, feel better, and reverse chronic physiological and metabolic issues.

The product was developed by Jonathan Tailor, who developed it for his pregnant wife to optimize her and their newborn baby girl’s health. Adults of all ages can use the proven ingredients found in Vitaae to help them feel, look, and think more clearly on a regular basis.

If you’re someone struggling with cognition, feel like you aren’t as sharp as you used to be, or just want to boost your focus and energy levels, then Vitaae is the perfect supplement to reach your goals.

Is Vitaae Legit?

Although Vitaae is one of the best cognitive enhancers on the market, many people still haven’t heard of Sane Laboratories and don’t know whether the company is legitimate or not. SANE has a stellar history of manufacturing high-quality products that are both safe and effective. You can absolutely trust Vitaae and feel comfortable knowing their products are:

Formulated with clinically proven & patented ingredients: Vitaae uses clinically proven & patented ingredients that deliver real, noticeable results. SANE Laboratories formulates its products to maximize your performance and to enhance brain health in a safe manner.

Manufactured & supported in the US: All of SANE Laboratories products are manufactured in the United States – including Vitaae. In addition, unlike other companies that outsource their customer support to third-world countries, SANE uses real US-based customer support agents.

Made in a GMP formula & facility: Vitaae is manufactured in an FDA-certified manufacturing facility that adheres to the highest quality standards. In addition, this product is made using GMP (good manufacturing practices) to ensure the product you receive in the mail is of the highest quality.

3rd party tested for purity & potency: Each batch of Vitaae is tested for heavy metals, fillers, impurities, and any other dangerous ingredients so that you can rest easy knowing you have a pure, high-quality product.

How Long Will it Take for Vitaae to Work?

Like all good things, it takes a little bit of time for Vitaae to work. You should not expect miracles overnight or you will find yourself disappointed.

However, the manufacturer does note that most people start to see some improvement after the first few weeks of use. They recommend giving the product 30 to 60 days in order to truly start seeing the real benefits of using the product.

Our recommendation is to give it the full 60 days to give the ingredients in Vitaae a true chance to reduce the inflammation that is impairing your cognitive abilities.

How to Order Vitaae?

If you’re ready to boost your memory, focus, and energy levels, then you can order Vitaae directly from the official website. There you’ll find three different purchasing options depending on your individual needs:

Every order of Vitaae comes with SANE’s exclusive 365-day money-back guarantee. If for whatever reason you find yourself dissatisfied with Vitaae, simply contact the manufacturer and you will receive a complimentary refund for your purchase. No other manufacturer even comes close to offering something like this.

Final Thoughts

Vitaae is one of the few cognitive enhancers on the market that combines both safety and efficiency. According to the official website, thousands of adults around the United States and around the world have seen real improvements in cognition by taking Vitaae.

If you are someone looking to improve your cognition, stop brain aging in its’ tracks, or just want to improve your focus and productivity, then you need to visit the official website of Vitaae to order a bottle today.

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6 foods that can boost cancer recovery

6 foods that can boost cancer recovery

  • January 30, 2021

World Cancer Day is an International day marked on 4th of February every year to raise awareness of cancer and to encourage its prevention, detection and treatment. As per the National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020, released by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), cancers of the lung, mouth, stomach and oesophagus were the most common among men while cancers of breast and cervix uteri were most common among women.

When we look at data of the last 20 years, there has been a significant rise in cancer cases and the reasons are multifactorial – from unhealthy eating, poor lifestyle to smoking and poor emotional health. The more we resort to the above-mentioned factors, the more our immunity is compromised which then would upregulate the cancer genes and downregulate the health promoting genes.

Hence when it comes to recovery from cancer, we need to focus on the four pillars of good health – right nutrition, physically active lifestyle, good quality sleep and emotional health. Although we need to focus on all these four pillars, right nutrition is one the very strong verticals when it comes to preventing or quick recovery from cancers. Our immunity is our first line of defence and studies have shown that cancer cells grow rapidly when our immunity is not able to fight them off. Interestingly 85% of our immunity lies in our gut. Therefore, taking care and improving the health of our gut is the key to building long lasting immunity.

We all have billions of bacteria that live in our gut and their food is fiber. So, when we eat foods rich in fiber, not only are we eating but also, we are feeding our gut bacteria. And when we consume processed or junk and animal foods, we are not getting any fiber and thereby weakening the health of our gut. Hence the key message is to eat more of real foods or plant foods like more fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes and less of processed, junk and animal foods.

Although eating more of plant foods and less of processed and animal foods can help in speedy recovery or prevention from cancer, below are specific six foods that can help in increasing immunity and are loaded with anti-cancer properties:

Beetroot: Beets seem to inhibit carcinogen formation and increase production of immune cells and body enzymes that help fight cancer development. Whether cooked or raw, beets provide an array of nutrients, including potassium and vitamin C which helps in building the body’s immune system.

17 Best Supplements to Take for a Stronger Immune System

17 Best Supplements to Take for a Stronger Immune System

  • January 30, 2021

You might be wondering how to improve your immune health. The good news is that there are a number of things you can do to give it a boost. Making sure you’re eating the right foods should be top priority. Adding those fruits and veggies and other nutrients into your diet will help you feel good. Getting enough sleep is easier said than done, but your body needs it. So practicing good sleep-hygiene habits will get you one step closer to peaceful dreamland. Limiting your consumption of alcohol and quitting smoking can help, and staying active and moving your body will make a difference.

Truthfully, not one specific habit or thing can boost your immune system on its own. It takes a holistic, well-rounded approach to make sure you’re protecting yourself against illness and feeling good inside and out.

In some situations, you might also want to get another boost through supplements. We know that certain vitamins and minerals play a role in a healthy immune system, like vitamin D, vitamin C, and zinc, to name a few. You can get a lot of these nutrients from a balanced diet, but if you can’t, then that’s where supplementation might be needed.

If you are planning on taking supplements to take care of your immune system, it’s important to check with your doctor or healthcare provider first. They can help you figure out which supplements are best for you and provide dosing recommendations.

If you’re looking for some ideas, take a look at some of our editor favorites below.

The Nue Co. Immunity ($45)

The Nue Co.’s Immunity supplement supplies you with 100% of your recommended daily dose of vitamin C, plus turkey tail mushroom, an herb that reduces inflammation. It also has BioPerine to help you absorb and reap the benefits of that vitamin C.

BioSchwartz Immunity Boost Supplement ($25)

This immunity-boosting supplement is jam-packed with, well, immune system boosters. The formula contains 17 all-natural ingredients, including vitamin C, zinc, elderberry, and echinacea. It supports the respiratory system and immune cell function and fights free radicals.

The Well 30-Day Immune Complex ($88)

You get a blend of vitamins and nutrients to ward off any illness in these packets. Each one contains four immune-support supplements, plus one vitamin D, zinc, and N-acetyl L-cysteine capsule each. The brand recommends you take one packet a day with a meal when you’re feeling sick or if you want to prevent getting sick (like if you’re traveling or if someone around you is sick).

Nature’s Way Fortify Women’s Probiotic ($16)

Your gut health has an effect on so many different parts of your body, including your immune system. Taking a daily probiotic can support your digestive tract and add “good bacteria.” This one from Nature’s Way contains 11 probiotic strains.

Hum Nutrition Here Comes the Sun ($12)

Vitamin D has a big role in the production of key immune cells. The thing is, there are few sources of vitamin D, and your body produces vitamin D from sun exposure, which can be hard to come by during the winter or if you live in a colder climate. Because of that, a lot of us need to take daily supplements to cancel out any deficiencies. This formula from Hum is plant-based, promotes a healthy immune system and bone strength, and is a mood booster.

Emergenc-C Immune+ ($11)

You’ve probably taken an Emergen-C when you felt a tickle at the back of your throat or started to get the sniffles. The immune-support formula contains 1000mg of vitamin C and other boosters like vitamin D and zinc.

Nature’s Bounty Immune 24 Hour ($20)

Vitamin C does a lot for your body: It helps fight colds, promotes antioxidant activity, and aids in the absorption of other nutrients. Nature’s Bounty’s vitamin C formula provides 24-hour immune support and is also paired with vitamin D, zinc, elderberry, and echinacea.

Olly Hello Happy Gummy Worms ($20)

Gummy worms as vitamins? Sign us up. These ones are supposed to lift your spirits, but they’ve also got immune-boosting vitamin D so you can feel good mentally and physically.

Garden of Life Vitamin Code Raw Zinc ($10)

Zinc is another immune-supporting mineral that your body needs. It can also help with nasal congestion, a sore throat, and coughing. This zinc supplement is raw and comes in whole-food form, so it’s easier to absorb. The formula also contains vitamin C.

Sakara Complete Probiotic Formula ($46)

Here’s another probiotic option. It contains 11 probiotic strains, two digestive enzymes, two systemic enzymes, and a prebiotic fiber—all of these work together to help with absorption, relieve bloat, and reduce inflammation. Plus, it’s clean and vegan friendly.

Nature Made Super B Energy Complex Softgels ($7)

B vitamins are important for our overall health, but they can also help with immune function. This complex from Nature Made contains vitamins B6 and B12 and folic acid (vitamin B9).

Nature’s Way Sambucus Black Elderberry Gummies ($13)

Studies have shown that elderberries can shorten colds and reduce symptoms. You can take elderberry supplements as a preventative measure, too. And it can’t get easier than taking elderberry gummies daily to prevent a cold. These also include vitamin C and zinc.

Source Naturals Wellness Formula ($33)

This daily immune-support formula has a cult following and is a favorite with our editors. It contains over 30 (yes, 30) ingredients: antioxidants, herbal extracts, vitamins, and minerals. The tricky thing about this one, though, is you have to take four to six capsules a day or, for the highest dosage, six capsules every three hours. It’s a lot, but it really works if you’re in major need of a boost.

Gaia Herbs Quick Defense ($26)

For an herbal remedy, you can try this option. It’s a blend of echinacea, elderberry, and ginger to support your body’s natural defenses.

Goop Perfect Attendance Immunity Chews ($30)

Take two of these chews a day to feel good. Its main ingredients are elderberry and EpiCor (a fermentation ingredient with immune-boosting properties).

Moon Juice SuperYou ($49)

Moon Juice’s popular SuperYou supplement is perfect for de-stressing and energy support, but it has immune system benefits, too. It contains powerful adaptogens like ashwagandha, rhodiola, shatavari.

The Well Immune Tincture ($44)

I take this liquid supplement as part of my daily routine, and I think it does play a role in keeping my immune system strong. I love that it has herbal ingredients like mushrooms, astragalus, elderberry, and wild cherry bark extract—it makes for a solid natural-remedy choice.

Next up: 20 Herbs That Can Strengthen Your Immune System

This article originally appeared on The Thirty

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