Staff organize COVID-19 test packets at the Sanderford Road Park COVID-19 testing site on Tuesday, January 19, 2021 in Raleigh, NC.

Is it better to get immunity from COVID or vaccines?

  • June 17, 2021

Staff organize COVID-19 test packets at the Sanderford Road Park COVID-19 testing site on Tuesday, January 19, 2021 in Raleigh, NC.

Staff organize COVID-19 test packets at the Sanderford Road Park COVID-19 testing site on Tuesday, January 19, 2021 in Raleigh, NC.

rwillett@newsobserver.com

Research shows both coronavirus infection and vaccination offers immunity that can protect people from getting sick again. But by how much and for how long remains unclear — a scientific gap that only time could fill.

Regardless of how immunity is acquired, there’s no telling whose bodies will or won’t create effective antibodies, and why they last longer for some than others; doctors speculate age or certain medical conditions might play a role.

It also doesn’t help that the testing shortage that plagued the nation at the beginning of the pandemic will forever shield researchers from understanding the true impact of COVID-19.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that between February 2020 and March 2021, there were about 114.6 million total coronavirus infections in the U.S.. That’s about 81.1 million more cases than are confirmed as of June 17.

While people can gain immunity from both infection and vaccination, antibodies created from both routes target different parts of the virus, which leads to variations in the quality of protection.

It’s like a coin flip: risk contracting COVID-19 — and potentially becoming a long-hauler — or getting vaccinated. Some argue the final outcome is similar, but one is far more dangerous than the other.

Here’s what the latest data show about immunity from prior infection and vaccines.

Natural immunity from coronavirus infection

There are certain illnesses in which infection can offer more protection than a vaccine.

For example, coming down with measles or mumps is said to confer lifelong immunity to the virus, but some people who get the vaccine may still get infected, although the shots still limit and prevent the spread of outbreaks.

But if the novel coronavirus is anything like others in the coronavirus family, like the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), then permanent protection after infection is unlikely.

Studies offer some positive clues, however.

Research published in February found that coronavirus patients gained “substantial immune memory” that involved all four major parts of the immune system: memory B cells, antibodies, memory CD4+ T cells and memory CD8+ T cells.

This protection lasted about six months after infection in most people, but for some, it remained for up to eight months, suggesting it could last even longer in some cases.

Separate research posted in April showed a history of COVID-19 among U.K. patients was associated with an 84% lower risk of reinfection for about seven months after testing positive.

Another non-peer reviewed study published in June found that over five months, 1,359 American health care workers who previously had COVID-19 and didn’t get vaccinated stayed clear of reinfection. The Cleveland Clinic researchers said, in the context of a short supply of vaccines globally, “a practical and useful message would be to consider symptomatic COVID-19 to be as good as having received a vaccine,” adding that people who’ve had the coronavirus “are unlikely to benefit from COVID-19 vaccination.”

While scientists cannot predict who will develop natural immunity, evidence shows people who had severe COVID-19 are more likely to develop a stronger immune response than those who had milder forms of the disease.

Immunity from COVID-19 vaccines

It’s also true that research shows COVID-19 vaccines offer protection against reinfection, although “breakthrough cases” can occur because no vaccine is 100% effective.

However, studies have found vaccine-derived antibodies are more robust compared to those from natural infection — and the job is done without causing illness or other long-term complications often brought on by the disease.

Two doctors from Italy compared the process of infection and vaccination in relation to variants to the plot of an action movie.

It “begins with a character (the virus) running freely across the globe, eluding capture until being finally sent to jail (built by natural immunity). However, if this prison is not secure enough, the virus could escape, aided by certain mutations,” Dr. Emanuele Andreano and Dr. Rino Rappuoli of the Monoclonal Antibody Discovery Lab, wrote in Nature. “Vaccine-induced immunity… should help ensure those escape routes are securely closed.”

An April study that has not been peer-reviewed found that two doses of either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines offered 10 times higher levels of antibodies compared to those developed after natural infection.

Another April paper showed that people who were previously infected with the coronavirus experienced significant boosts in their preexisting antibodies after two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, which also offered protection against coronavirus variants.

“Vaccines actually, at least with regard to SARS-CoV-2, can do better than nature… They are better than the traditional response you get from natural infection,” White House chief medical adviser Dr. Anthony Fauci said during a COVID-19 briefing in May.

Exactly why vaccines appear to generate more robust immunity than natural infection remains unclear, but Dr. Sabra Klein, a virologist and professor of immunology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, said infection and vaccination work in different ways.

“The immune system of people who have been infected has been trained to target all these different parts of the virus called antigens. You’d think that would provide the strongest immunity, but it doesn’t,” Klein said. “The Pfizer or Moderna vaccines target just the spike protein — the part of the virus that is essential for invading cells.

“It’s like a big red button sitting on the surface of the virus. It’s really sticking out there, and it’s what our immune system sees most easily,” she continued. “By focusing on this one big antigen, it’s like you’re making our immune system put blinders on and only be able to see that one piece of the virus.”

In other words, vaccines work to strengthen immune responses gained during natural infection; that’s why health experts advise people who’ve had COVID-19 to still get vaccinated.

“There’s nothing deleterious about getting a boost to an immune response that you’ve had before,” Dr. Marion Pepper, an immunologist at the University of Washington in Seattle, told The New York Times. “You could get an actually even better immune response by boosting whatever immunity you had from the first infection by a vaccine.”

Follow more of our reporting on Full coverage of coronavirus in Washington


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Katie Camero is a McClatchy National Real-Time Science reporter based in Miami. She’s an alumna of Boston University and has reported for the Wall Street Journal, Science, and The Boston Globe.

Immune system protein may defend against deadly necrotizing enterocolitis in infants

Immune system protein may defend against deadly necrotizing enterocolitis in infants

  • June 17, 2021

Necrotizing enterocolitis, or NEC, is the most common and serious intestinal disease among premature babies. In this condition, bacteria invade the wall of the intestine. Inflammation sets in.

The disease causes tissue decay in the bowels. Once entered into the bloodstream, it can be more infectious and deadly.

Despite years of research, effective treatments remain elusive, and mortality rates remain unchanged.

A study by the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has revealed a protein that may protect babies from necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and lead to the development of new treatments.

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) protein plays a vital role in regulating immune responses and maintaining a healthy gut microbiome in adults.

Scientists focused on Interleukin-22 (IL-22) protein in mice models. They studied signaling and production of the protein in healthy intestines and intestines damaged by NEC. They analyzed IL-22 levels before and after birth and into adulthood, which for mice begins when they are weaned, at about 28 days.

They analyzed IL-22 levels before and after birth and into adulthood, which for mice begins when they are weaned, at about 28 days. In both healthy and diseased intestines, there was low postnatal IL-22 production IL-22 production up until day 21.

Scientists also studied tissue samples from preemies who did and did not develop NEC. They found low levels of IL-22 in all of the intestinal samples. And in the babies who had developed NEC, an appropriate immune response had not been mounted in the intestines.

Misty Good, MD, assistant professor of pediatrics in the Division of Newborn Medicine, said, “Immune cells in the neonatal intestine have shown an inability to produce adequate amounts of IL-22 to control the progression of NEC. Immature intestines are associated with a lack of IL-22 production, a theory strengthened by the fact that premature infants weighing less than 3 pounds 5 ounces are most at risk for NEC.”

“Typically, the more premature a baby is the lower the baby’s weight and the more undeveloped a baby’s gastrointestinal immune system is. Harmful bacteria can get cross the gut barrier and activate the immune system. And because the immune system of preemies isn’t fully developed, it leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response that can lead to tissue death.”

Later, scientists injected the mice with IL-22. Doing so controlled the inflammation while promoting the regeneration of tightly packed cells lining the intestine.

 IL-22 can help strengthen the intestinal walls, creating a barrier in the gut that allows for nutrient absorption while preventing toxic or otherwise hostile microorganisms from seeping into the bloodstream.

Good said“Interestingly, our work demonstrated that treatment with IL-22, in mice, protects the newborn intestine against damage caused by NEC. Our study represents a substantial advance in understanding the role of IL-22 in early life and sets the stage for new ways to treat NEC in the future.”

Journal Reference:
  1. Belgacem Mihi et al. Interleukin-22 signaling attenuates necrotizing enterocolitis by promoting epithelial cell regeneration. DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100320
Plant Immune Proteins Trigger Cell Death

Plant Immune Proteins Trigger Cell Death

  • June 17, 2021

Summary

Researchers have pieced together the mechanism by which key plant immune proteins kill their cells to defend against pathogens.

Researchers engineered this human cell to express plant defense proteins called NLRs. Though the human cell doesn’t contain any other components of the plant immune system, NLRs alone can still trigger cell death. Credit: Pierre Jacob

Plant cells self-destruct to survive. After detecting a pathogen, they set off a chain reaction that ultimately destroys them, preventing disease from spreading.

Now, scientists have discovered the mechanism behind this self-destruction. Plant defense proteins cluster together to pierce the cell membrane, opening a channel into the infected cell. Calcium then floods in, ultimately killing the cell, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator Jeffery Dangl and his team report June 17, 2021, in the journal Science.

Scientists have long known such pathogen-induced cell death occurs in plants. And the defense proteins were first identified in the mid 1990s. “But nobody knew how they worked to control cell death and immune responses,” says Dangl, a plant biologist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “Now, we know they all work through a never-before-seen kind of channel.”

The findings align with a recent study in Cell, which reported a similar result in a different category of plant immune proteins. Because this family of proteins is found in most land plants, the mechanism probably holds true across the plant kingdom, Dangl suggests.

“This is a profoundly important advance,” says Jonathan Jones, a plant immunologist at The Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, England, who wasn’t involved in the work. “We get two parallel stories with complementary results that show the same thing.”

Activated plant immune proteins (pink) move to the cell membrane (left panel). When inactive, these proteins spread throughout the cell (right). The overlay (green and blue ribbons) shows the protein structure that pierces the cell membrane to form a channel. Credit: Dr. Farid El Kasmi

The proteins Dangl’s team studied, called NLRs, detect specific pathogen molecules. Most plants carry genes for hundreds of NLRs. A few years ago, Dangl came across a paper reporting an interesting phenomenon in one kind of these proteins. They clumped together and moved towards the cell membrane ­– a behavior often seen in proteins that make membrane channels. Dangl and his team wondered whether something similar might occur with the NLR proteins his lab studied, and whether it could be related to the cell death pathway.

The researchers used a technique called x-ray crystallography to take detailed pictures of this NLR protein’s structure. Then, they made targeted mutations to the protein, to see how changes in various places affected its function.

By testing how different versions of the protein behaved in cells and in lab dishes, the researchers pieced together a picture of its mode of action. That picture looks something like this: In the presence of a pathogen, NLR proteins merge into a mega-protein. Then, part of the protein forms a funnel-like structure that pokes into the membrane of an infected cell. That creates a channel that lets calcium into the cell. Because high levels of calcium are toxic, an influx can mean death for the cell.

In another experiment, the team engineered human cells to contain an NLR protein. Human cells don’t have any other parts of the plant immune system. But just having an active NLR protein was enough to let calcium in and kill the cells, the researchers showed. That suggests the protein is the driving force behind the calcium surge.

Next, the team is exploring whether calcium kills the plant cells directly, or whether it turns on other defense pathways that lead to cell death. Hammering out these pathways gives scientists a better understanding of how plants protect themselves, Dangl says, and that could help improve the design of disease-resistant crops.

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Citation

P. Jacob et al. “Plant ‘helper’ immune receptors are Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channels.” Science. Published online June 17, 2021. doi: 10.1126/science.abg7917

Dentitox Pro – Improve Your Teeth with a Daily Gum Health Serum

Dentitox Pro – Improve Your Teeth with a Daily Gum Health Serum

  • June 17, 2021

Dentitox Pro is a daily oral care product that uses nutrients from plants that help consumers improve their teeth and gums without replacing the user’s current routine. The formula is easy to apply each day, though consumers will need to keep up with using this remedy consistently to make a difference.

What is Dentitox Pro?

Dental health is just as important as physical fitness and the right nutrition for the body. The way someone takes care of their teeth can make a difference in their health since every nutrient they consume goes through their mouth first. The mouth is also filled with different types of bacteria, and these microorganisms can build up and cause cavities if not cared for properly. The use of Dentitox Pro can be a helpful solution for individuals that want to improve their dental health.

There is extraordinarily little information available with Dentitox Pro. Still, it was developed by Marc Hall, who has a passion for the changes that plants can have in consumers’ health everywhere. The remedy consists of many common ingredients that users find in toothpaste and mouthwash, but several other plants make a big difference.

How Dentitox Pro Works

The Dentitox Pro formula focuses on delivering nutrients that the body needs. Within just 6 drops of the formula, consumers will get a ton of different nutrients that their body already needs to maintain for better health, like vitamins A, C, D3, and K2. It even includes many minerals like potassium and calcium.

However, with all of these typical ingredients, consumers would seemingly get the same support from simply using a multivitamin. That’s why there are additional ingredients that make the performance of this remedy even more intense, including:

  • Elderberry
  • Ironized phosphoric acid
  • Xylitol
  • Collagen
  • MSM
  • Indian licorice root extract
  • Neem
  • Sage
  • Cinnamon essential oil
  • Peppermint essential oil

Whenever the user decides to include the Dentitox Pro drops in their routine, they should apply them directly to the teeth and gums. Brushing the teeth is still necessary to maintain oral health, but Dentitox Pro provides a way to boost that health.

Read on below to learn about each of these ingredients’ role in dental and oral health.

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Elderberry

Elderberry covers several different types of trees, covered in white flowers and deep-blue berries. It is often used to deliver important antioxidants to the user, though some suggest that it can improve the immune system. The berries cannot be eaten in their natural state, so they are typically used as a supplement.

As helpful as elderberry might be, some consumers can have an adverse reaction to it if they consume more than they intended. Some of the signs that users may have taken in too much include nausea, weakness, dizziness, and stupor.

Ironized Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric acid comes from phosphorus, which the body uses with calcium to keep the teeth and bones strong. It keeps kidney function under control, and it helps the body store energy safely.

Xylitol

Xylitol is primarily used as a low-calorie substitute for sugar, providing users with an option that is low in sugar. Most of the time, this ingredient is used in gums and similar products to keep the teeth and gums healthy. Studies show that xylitol can reduce the harmful bacteria in the mouth by starving it of the nutrients that it would need to survive. It also can reduce plaque and ultimately prevent tooth decay, which means that users have a greater form of protection against inflammatory gum disease.

This ingredient is also helpful in preventing ear infections, and it supports the body’s need for antioxidants. It is also a type of sugar alcohol, though it doesn’t actually contain any alcohol whatsoever. Sugar alcohols are simply a type of carbohydrate.

Collagen

Most people think of collagen as a skincare ingredient because it reduces wrinkles and improves skin health. It is also directly associated with relief from joint pain, though it may be used in this oral health supplement to prevent bone loss. As time goes on, bone density improves, even if it has weakened with age.

Using a supplement is the easiest way to improve collagen levels, helping the body improve hydration.

MSM

MSM is typically included to reduce pain in the joints, complementing the use of collagen perfectly. It can reduce inflammation, which commonly occurs in irritated gums when they become infected. MSM is sometimes connected with relief from allergy symptoms, and it can improve the body’s ability to recover after an intense workout.

The research behind MSM shows that this nutrient also has a powerful effect on the immune system, which means that users will heal faster when they need dental care.

Indian Licorice Root Extract

Indian Licorice Root Extract offers tons of antioxidants to reduce inflammation and provides the user with antimicrobial benefits. When used regularly, there’s a chance that this extract can reduce the risk of infections in the upper respiratory tract, and it can improve the way that the body digests different nutrients.

Digestion has a major role in the health of the mouth. The bacteria and acid in the stomach can easily become imbalanced, causing issues in the esophagus. These bacteria can then infiltrate the gums and mouth, causing damage to the teeth. However, balancing the needs of the digestive system can make a huge difference.

Neem

Neem is a leaf, and it is used for the treatment of many ailments for the body. A few of the problems that it can help to deal with include appetite loss, skin ulcers, intestinal worms, upset stomach, and even diabetes. However, the biggest reason this ingredient is probably included in the formula has to do with the nourishment it provides individuals who experience gingivitis.

Gingivitis is a type of gum disease, and it often causes redness, inflammation, and irritation around the bottoms of the teeth. While it can be reversed, consumers need to improve their oral hygiene to protect them from recurrence.

Sage

Sage has tons of nutrients that the body can benefit from. Sage is incredibly beneficial for oral health because it can reduce the microbes responsible for dental plaque. Typically, it can be used topically in mouthwashes to kill off the bacteria primarily known for leading to dental cavities.

The anti-inflammatory benefits are helpful to individuals who are struggling with swollen gums or infections.

Essential Oils

Dentitox Pro includes both cinnamon and peppermint essential oils. While cinnamon essential oil is associated with reduced bacteria and fungal growths in the month, peppermint is typically used for joint pain or headaches. Both of these essential oils are rather strong, but they are diluted for the right benefit and taste of the formula.

Both oils can be used to alleviate stress and improve relaxation.

Purchasing Dentitox Pro

While there are many oral hygiene products on the market today, nothing is quite like the Dentitox Pro formula. Consumers will only be able to purchase this formula from the official website; there are a few packages they can choose from:

Those packages include:

Even if the user doesn’t find that they get the healing they hoped for with Dentitox Pro, they have up to 60 days to speak with customer service about getting their money back.

image1

For anyone that wants to learn more about Dentitox Pro can reach out to the customer service team by filling out a contact form at:

  • dentitox.com/help/contact-us.php.

Summary

Dentitox Pro provides users with a boost to their oral health, making it easier to improve the oral climate within the mouth. This improvement is meant to keep the gums and teeth clean, reducing the risk of toxic bacteria that could otherwise ruin their immune system and cause bad breath. The ingredients used are entirely plant-based, which is incredibly beneficial on the user’s body.

More Like This: Steel Bite Pro Reviews: Risky Scam or Ingredients That Work?

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The links contained in this product review may result in a small commission if you opt to purchase the product recommended at no additional cost to you. This goes towards supporting our research and editorial team and please know we only recommend high quality products.

Disclaimer:

Please understand that any advice or guidelines revealed here are not even remotely a substitute for sound medical advice from a licensed healthcare provider. Make sure to consult with a professional physician before making any purchasing decision if you use medications or have concerns following the review details shared above. Individual results may vary as the statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


Immune system protein may defend against deadly intestinal disease in babies

Immune system protein may defend against deadly intestinal disease in babies

  • June 17, 2021

IMAGE

IMAGE: A study led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified a protein in the immune system that may protect babies from necrotizing enterocolitis, a…
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Credit: Matt Miller/Washington University

The intestinal disease necrotizing enterocolitis is a leading cause of death among premature infants born in the U.S. and across the globe. Characterized by excessive inflammation that can cause tissue decay in the bowels, the disease provides a pathway for infectious and deadly bacteria to enter the bloodstream.

Despite four decades of research, effective treatments remain elusive, and mortality rates in babies who develop the disease have remained essentially unchanged, hovering at about 30%.

Now, a study led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified, in mice, a protein in the immune system that may protect babies from necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and lead to the development of new treatments.

The findings are published online June 15 in Cell Reports Medicine.

“Necrotizing enterocolitis is a serious, fast-acting condition that can lead to death within hours,” said the study’s senior author, Misty Good, MD, an assistant professor of pediatrics in the Division of Newborn Medicine. “We don’t know why NEC happens, and we can try to treat it with antibiotics and surgical removal of the dead tissue; however, in severe cases, many babies will still die. No treatments stop the disease from progressing, but our hope is that the protein we’ve identified will change that.”

The scientists focused on Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a protein that regulates immune responses and helps maintain a healthy gut microbiome in adults.

Over the years, research has suggested that IL-22 has a critical role in adult gastrointestinal diseases. Consequently, potential treatments involving IL-22 are being studied in COVID-19 illness, alcohol-induced liver disease, and graft-versus-host disease that develops after organ or bone marrow transplants. However, IL-22’s role in newborns’ intestines has been unclear.

To better understand the protein’s role, the researchers created a mouse model to examine IL-22 signaling and production in healthy intestines and in intestines damaged by NEC. They analyzed IL-22 levels before and after birth and into adulthood, which for mice begins when they are weaned, at about 28 days old. In both the healthy and diseased intestines, the researchers documented low postnatal IL-22 production up until day 21, when production skyrocketed for the mice and continued into adulthood.

The researchers also studied tissue samples from preemies who did and did not develop NEC. The scientists found low levels of IL-22 in all of the intestinal samples. And in the babies who had developed NEC, an appropriate immune response had not been mounted in the intestines.

“Immune cells in the neonatal intestine have shown an inability to produce adequate amounts of IL-22 to control the progression of NEC,” said Good, who treats patients at St. Louis Children’s Hospital and is also co-program director of the university’s Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Fellowship. As a member of the scientific advisory council of the Necrotizing Enterocolitis Society, Good has led an effort involving seven medical centers that have developed a large biorepository of samples from infants affected by NEC.

Good surmised that immature intestines are associated with a lack of IL-22 production, a theory strengthened by the fact that premature infants weighing less than 3 pounds 5 ounces are most at risk for NEC. Typically, the more premature a baby is, the lower the baby’s weight and the more undeveloped a baby’s gastrointestinal immune system is. Harmful bacteria can get cross the gut barrier and activate the immune system. And because the immune system of preemies isn’t fully developed, it leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response that can lead to tissue death.

The researchers’ findings of low levels of IL-22 in neonatal tissues led to their next step: injecting the mice with IL-22. The protein aids in controlling inflammation while promoting regeneration of tightly packed cells lining the intestine. IL-22 can help strengthen the intestinal walls, creating a barrier in the gut that allows for nutrient absorption while preventing toxic or otherwise hostile microorganisms from seeping into the bloodstream.

“Interestingly, our work demonstrated that treatment with IL-22, in mice, protects the newborn intestine against damage caused by NEC,” Good said. “Our study represents a substantial advance in understanding the role of IL-22 in early life and sets the stage for new ways to treat NEC in the future.”

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Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

'Mosquito smoothie' innovation boosts future malaria vaccine potential

‘Mosquito smoothie’ innovation boosts future malaria vaccine potential

  • June 17, 2021

A faster method for collecting pure malaria parasites from infected mosquitos could accelerate the development of new, more potent malaria vaccines.

The new method, developed by a team of researchers led by Imperial College London, enables more parasites to be isolated rapidly with fewer contaminants, which could simultaneously increase both the scalability and efficacy of malaria vaccines.

The parasite that causes malaria is becoming increasingly resistant to antimalarial drugs, with the mosquitoes that transmit the disease also increasingly resistant to pesticides. This has created an urgent need for new ways to fight malaria, which is the world’s third-most deadly disease in under-fives, with a child dying from malaria every two minutes.

Existing malaria vaccines that use whole parasites provide moderate protection against the disease. In these vaccines, the parasites are ‘attenuated’ – just like some flu vaccines and the MMR vaccine – so they infect people and raise a strong immune response that protects against malaria, but don’t cause disease themselves.

However, these vaccines require several doses, with each dose requiring potentially tens of thousands of parasites at an early stage of their development, known as sporozoites. Sporozoites are normally found in the salivary glands of mosquitoes, and in a natural infection are passed to humans when the mosquito bites. They then travel to the human liver, where they prepare to cause infection in the body.

Extracting sporozoites for use in a live vaccine currently requires manual dissection of the mosquito salivary glands – miniscule structures behind the mosquito head – by a skilled technician, which is a time-consuming and costly process.

The new method, described today in Life Science Alliance, vastly speeds up this process by effectively creating a ‘mosquito smoothie’ and then filtering the resulting liquid by size, density and electrical charge, leaving a pure sporozoite product suitable for vaccination. Importantly, no dissection is required.

Lead researcher Professor Jake Baum, from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial, said: “Creating whole-parasites vaccines in large enough volumes and in a timely and cost-effective way has been a major roadblock for advancing malaria vaccinology, unless you can employ an army of skilled mosquito dissectors. Our new method presents a way to radically cheapen, speed up and improve vaccine production.”

But it’s not just about speed and cost. Traditional dissection methods struggle to remove all contaminants, such as proteins from the salivary glands, which are often extracted with sporozoites. The extra debris is likely to affect the infectivity of the sporozoites once they are inside the body, and could even affect how the immune system responds, impacting the efficacy of any whole parasite vaccine.

The new method also tackles this problem, resulting in pure uncontaminated sporozoite samples. The team discovered that, as well as being purer, sporozoites produced were surprisingly more infectious, hinting that vaccines produced using their method may require a much lower dose of sporozoites.

First author of the study Dr Joshua Blight, from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial, said: “With this new approach we not only improve the scalability of vaccine production, but our isolated sporozoites may actually prove to be more potent as a vaccine, giving us additional bang per mosquito buck.”

The team developed and tested their method with both human and rodent malaria parasites. They then tested the rodent version as a vaccine in mice, and found that when exposed to an infected mosquito bite, vaccinated mice showed 60-70 per cent protection when immunisations were given into muscle. When the same sporozoites were given directly into the blood stream (intravenously) protection was 100 per cent, known as ‘sterile’ protection.

The researchers are now developing the method further in readiness for mass manufacture of sporozoites under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions in order to produce a vaccine ready for human challenge trials. The plan is that participants would be given vaccine-grade sporozoites produced using this method and then purposefully bitten by an infected mosquito.

Looking beyond vaccines the researchers also say their method should help accelerate studies of sporozoite biology in general, which could in turn lead to fresh insights into the liver stage of malaria and new drug and vaccine regimes.

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The research was funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

How To Improve Your Gut Health – Forbes Health

How To Improve Your Gut Health – Forbes Health

  • June 17, 2021

You’ve probably heard the term “gut health” and know that “good” gut health is desirable. But what does it really mean to have a healthy gut? It means having the right balance of tiny bacteria and other microbes in your digestive tract. Researchers are increasingly discovering ways these microorganisms contribute to overall health.

“A healthy gut means you have a stronger immune system, a better mood, effective digestion that’s free of discomfort and a healthy brain and heart,” says Sabine Hazan, M.D., a gastroenterologist, founder of Ventura Clinical Trials in Ventura, California, and author of “Let’s Talk S—.”

5 Science-Backed Ways to Restore Gut Health

Certain foods and healthy lifestyle habits can improve your gut health naturally.

1. Eat Fiber-Rich and Probiotic-Packed Foods

Fiber is a plant-based nutrient that reduces the risk of metabolic diseases by stimulating the growth and diversity of good bacteria in the gut, research suggests. Sweet potatoes, spinach, beets, carrots and fennel are full of naturally gut-enhancing fiber. Besides fruits and vegetables, whole grains are a rich source of fiber, too. 

Fermented foods like yogurt, kimchi, sauerkraut and kombucha are also prized for their gut-boosting abilities, thanks to the presence of probiotics. Yogurt specifically may help calm gastrointestinal conditions like diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and constipation. One study found people who eat yogurt regularly have more lactobacilli, a gut-benefitting bacteria, in their intestines, as well as fewer enterobacterium, a type of bacteria linked with inflammation. 

2. Consider a Supplement

Probiotic supplements have become increasingly popular as word of the importance of gut health continues to spread. While probiotic supplements aren’t a panacea for gut health, there’s some evidence they can give the microbiota a boost and restore gut health under certain conditions.

Your doctor may also recommend a probiotic supplement if you’re prescribed an antibiotic. Evidence suggests this may help prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea. 

If you’re interested in a probiotic supplement, talk to your doctor. While such supplements have a history of apparently safe use, especially in healthy people, the risk of harmful effects is greater in people with compromised immune systems. 

3. Exercise Often

Movement is medicine for so many parts of the human body, including the microbiome. In both animal and human studies, researchers have found that exercise promotes an increase in diversity of healthy bacteria in the gut.

While several studies highlight the roles exercise and diet can play together in positively impacting gut health, a 2019 review specifically reported that exercise has the potential to alter gut bacteria composition and functionality independently of diet. Researchers found longer workouts and high-intensity aerobic training, in particular, contributed most to gut bacteria diversity and function in relation to overall wellness. They also observed that lean people are more likely to reap the gut health benefits of exercise than individuals with overweight or obesity.

4. Limit Your Alcohol Intake

Drinking too much may negatively affect your microbiome, too. Repeated alcohol use is linked to gastritis, an irritation of the gut in which it becomes inflamed. Such inflammation can lead to heartburn, chronic discomfort, ulcers and bacterial infections. 

Drinking too much is also associated with intestinal inflammation, which is a sign of an unhealthy gut. Research suggests that this kind of inflammation alters the microbiota—including how well it works—and can throw it off balance. 

5. Reduce Stress Levels

Stress isn’t just mental: Think about those butterflies you feel when you’re excited or anxious. Experts in gut health often cite the “gut-brain connection” and refer to the gut as “the second brain.” While we don’t know everything about their relationship, we do know that mental health and the gut are intimately connected. 

Research suggests anxiety and depression are affected by the gut and vice versa—they can increase the risk of IBS, and people with IBS are more likely to experience these mental health disorders. 

Finding ways to manage your mental health and stress levels may help reduce uncomfortable GI symptoms and get your body back in balance. Don’t know where to start? Try adding some physical activity to your day. Something as simple as a daily walk might improve gut health, as research suggests exercise can increase the quality and quantity of health-boosting gut microbes.

Why Gut Health Matters

Your gut—otherwise known as your digestive system or your gastrointestinal (GI) system— digests the foods you eat, absorbs nutrients from it and uses those nutrients to fuel and maintain your body. 

“The gut plays a huge role in the health and well-being of our bodies,” says Alicia Romano, a specialized clinical dietitian at Tufts Medical Center in Boston and a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. In addition to digesting food and absorbing nutrients, “the gut is in tight communication with the brain, playing a constant game of telephone and influencing a number of factors, including immune activity, GI muscle contractions and fluid secretion. And the gut is a key player in the body’s immune system—over 70% of your immune cells reside in the gut.”

About Your Microbiome

The microbiome is all of the bacteria, viruses and fungi that inhabit the human body, says Dr. Hazen.

These bacteria are everywhere, including the skin, mouth, throat, stomach, colon, uterus, ovarian follicles, prostate, lungs, ears and eyes. “You name it, and there are microorganisms nearby,” Dr. Hazen says, adding that research has identified around 10,000 different microbial species in the human body.

Microbiologists divide bacteria into two categories: aerobic, meaning they require oxygen, and anaerobic, meaning they don’t require oxygen. “Bacteria that live on the skin are aerobic while those that thrive in the gut are usually anaerobic,” Dr. Hazen explains. “The microbiome is the key; it influences all sorts of health conditions from cancer to COVID-19.”

Signs and Symptoms of an Unhealthy Gut

One less-than-pleasant sign something’s up with your gut? Unfamiliar changes in your poop.

“If you notice abrupt changes to your stool length, color or consistency, this may be cause for concern,” Dr. Hazen says. “Normal stool should be brown and never include blood.”

Because so much of the population experiences issues with their bowels during certain points of their lives, doctors developed the Meyers Scale (aka Bristol Scale) to help patients describe their poop “without bringing in colored photos,” Dr. Hazen says. Different numbers on the scale are associated with different bowel movement issues, so consider checking out the scale to help communicate your concerns to your physician. 

Still, it’s important to remember what’s considered normal to you. “If your poop has looked like Silly Putty your whole life and you don’t experience any pain, this could be your normal,” says Dr. Hazen, explaining that describing something as “normal” is all relative. 

Beyond the status of your bowel movements, there are other signs your gut could use some attention. While everyone needs to be concerned about their gut health, Dr. Hazen says, the following symptoms may signal that your gut health could use some attention. Schedule some time with your physician if you experience:

  • Abnormal weight loss
  • Anemia diagnosed by your doctor
  • Change/pain in bowel habits
  • Rectal bleeding 

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Myhrstad MC, Tunsjø H, Charnock C, Telle-Hansen VH. Dietary Fiber, Gut Microbiota, and Metabolic Regulation—Current Status in Human Randomized Trials. Nutrients. 2020;12(3):859. 

Klinder A, Shen Q, Heppel S, Lovegrove JA, Rowland I, Tuohy KM. Impact of increasing fruit and vegetables and flavonoid intake on the human gut microbiota. Food & Function. 2016;7(4):1788-1796. 

Vitamin K. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. Accessed 5/12/2021.

Grizotte-Lake M, Zhong G, Duncan K, et al. Commensals Suppress Intestinal Epithelial Cell Retinoic Acid Synthesis to Regulate Interleukin-22 Activity and Prevent Microbial Dysbiosis. Immunity. 2018;49(6). 

Wassermann B, Müller H and Berg G. An Apple a Day: Which Bacteria Do We Eat With Organic and Conventional Apples? Front. Microbiol. 2019;10:1629. 

Adolfsson O, Meydani SN, Russell RM. Yogurt and gut function. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 80(2):245-256.

Veiga P, Pons N, Agrawal A, et al. Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6328. 

He T, Priebe MG, Zhong Y, et al. Effects of yogurt and bifidobacteria supplementation on the colonic microbiota in lactose-intolerant subjects. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104(2):595-604. 

Alvaro E, Andrieux C, Rochet V, et al. Composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbiota in consumers and non-consumers of yogurt. Br J Nutr. 2007;97(1):126-133. 

Fiber in Whole Grains. Oldways Whole Grains Council. Accessed 5/11/2021.

Short-term study suggests vegan diet can boost gut microbes related to body weight, body composition and blood sugar control. Science Daily. Accessed 5/11/2021.

Zou J, Chassaing B, Singh V, et al. Fiber-Mediated Nourishment of Gut Microbiota Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity by Restoring IL-22-Mediated Colonic Health. Cell Host & Microbe. 2018;23(1).

Fang L, Li W, Zhang W, Wang Y, Fu S. Association between whole grain intake and stroke risk: evidence from a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(9):16978-16983.

Harland JI, Garton LE. Whole-grain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity. Public Health Nutr. 2008;11(6):554-563. 

Parker ED, Liu S, Van Horn L, et al. The association of whole grain consumption with incident type 2 diabetes: the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23(6):321-327. 

The whole truth about whole grains. Mayo Clinic. Accessed 5/5/2021.

Zimmer J, Lange B, Frick JS, et al. A vegan or vegetarian diet substantially alters the human colonic faecal microbiota. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(1):53-60. 

Kim MS, Hwang SS, Park EJ, Bae JW. Strict vegetarian diet improves the risk factors associated with metabolic diseases by modulating gut microbiota and reducing intestinal inflammation. Environ Microbiol Rep. 2013;5(5):765-775. 

McFarland LV. Use of probiotics to correct dysbiosis of normal microbiota following disease or disruptive events: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2014;4(8):e005047. 

Probiotics: What You Need To Know. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Accessed 5/12/2021.

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Smith RP, Easson C, Lyle SM, et al. Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans. PLoS ONE 2019;14(10):e0222394. 

New study points to another possible correlation between sleep and overall good health. Science Daily. Accessed 5/11/2021.

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Claritox Pro Reviews - Does It Work or Real Scam Complaints?

Claritox Pro Reviews – Does It Work or Real Scam Complaints?

  • June 17, 2021

Claritox Pro is an entirely plant-based supplement that can help you address health issues, specifically vertigo, or as some describe it, a feeling of dizziness, and can cause you to become unbalanced and unsteady.

As you age, several health complications may occur. Even the smallest of things out of the ordinary may lead to more health complications. For example, something as simple as feeling dizzy may indicate an underlying cause that potentially may lead to chronic health conditions.

Vertigo is actually considered a symptom rather than a condition itself and may be an early sign of other complications. In simple terms, vertigo is a dizzy sensation that feels like the world around you is spinning/whirling. These dizzy spells are concurrent with people who suffer from vertigo.

There are several causes for vertigo and medications, inflammation in the brain, antibiotics, toxic buildup, and even the beginning of tinnitus. In addition, dizziness may lead to several other complications. As for treatments for vertigo, there are quite a few treatments available, but it comes as no surprise that they are expensive, and not everyone can afford them. Likewise, medications are available, but they may not suit everyone, and they too can be pretty expensive.

There are natural supplements available to help you address the problem of vertigo; however, not every supplement lives up to its claims. Several supplements use synthetic ingredients and other chemicals to increase the potency of their supplements, but those ingredients can prove to be harmful over time.

A new supplement that is one hundred percent naturally made, using clinically studied ingredients, is called Claritox Pro. This supplement was designed to help address the problem of vertigo and its symptoms. Moreover, thousands of people across the country have used the plant-based Claritox Pro and found positive results.

What is Claritox Pro?

As mentioned above, Claritox Pro is a supplement that will help you overcome vertigo and its symptoms. The best part is that it does this; naturally, there are no synthetic ingredients or chemicals used to make this supplement. Instead, as per the official site, Claritox Pro only uses naturally occurring plant-based ingredients.

Because of this feature, Claritox Pro already stands out from most of the supplements available in the market. In addition, this makes it completely safe to consume.

Claritox Pro is a clinically proven dietary supplement that effectively reduces the buildup of toxins in your brain and blood cells.

Claritox Pro has indeed been evaluated multiple times to discover how each component adds to the effectiveness of Claritox Pro, as well as the components are outlined here relying on those scientific studies. Our bodies’ metabolic rate as we grow older, our immune system weakens, and our digestion slows down as well.

These disorders can lead to a slew of new conditions, including weakened bones, tendons, tissues, cells, and other systems. In addition, as our bodies slow down, poisons, germs, and viruses enter our bodies, causing significant harm to our brain cells and body.

If we eat more healthily, the harm is likely to be mitigated. Nevertheless, not many of the foods we eat nowadays are entirely natural.

That is the issue. We must address the harmful brain cell inflammation to cure the causative factors of vertigo and dizziness issues.

Claritox Pro works by providing the most necessary nutrients and natural components to the cells in the brain. When the body is given the nutrition it requires, the body will start feeling better, and brain fog will be a thing of the past. This method is employed in the treatment of vertigo. As a result, Claritox Pro is now the most popular vertigo product on the market currently.

How Does Claritox Pro Work?

Claritox Pro is supported by the scientific principle of addressing the underlying problem of a weakened body’s balance system. Whenever our inner ear system fails, tinnitus occurs, or our brain’s neurotransmitters do not deliver precise signals.

With Claritox Pro, you can get rid of all the toxins in your body, and you will immediately start feeling better. Furthermore, this supplement also provides your body with the nutrition it requires to keep it healthy.

In other words, Claritox Pro is a supplement that supplies and enhances your system with a variety of natural minerals and compounds that have been shown to promote well-being.

Ingredients Used To Make Claritox Pro?

As previously stated, all the ingredients used in the making of this supplement are natural. There are no synthetic ingredients or chemicals used. All the ingredients used have been sourced from their place of origin, and are non-GMO, made in the USA, in an FDA approved and GMP certified facility,

to make sure that you get the best result possible.

Listed below are the 112mg proprietary blended formula and other vital ingredients used in the making of Claritox Pro:

Zinc 11mg

Zinc gives your body an extra burst of energy, and it also helps your body absorb other nutrients and minerals quickly. Furthermore, it can decrease the chances of inflammation in cells and the brain. Apart from this, it also helps strengthen our balance system, which is located in our inner ears.

Green Tea 150mg

Green Tea is mainly used to decrease inflammation in the gastrointestinal and blood cells, which can be affected by contaminants and other substances. It also aids in the removal of anxiety, oxidative toxins, and stress. Vertigo, dizziness, a weakened balance system, and vomiting are all symptoms that could be alleviated with green tea and its components.

Alpha Lipoic 150mg

As an antioxidant that reduces inflammation and may improve the symptoms of certain diseases, evidence shows that α-lipoic acid may stimulate or suppress the immune system and may assist the body in fighting cancer, infections, or other conditions. These effects are for both adaptive and innate immune systems.

Chromium 100mg

Many pharmaceutical medicines contain chromium to keep the body’s equilibrium from shifting. It relieves feelings of confusion and mood swings, and decreases constricted artery walls, allowing blood to circulate freely. Incorporating chromium into your meals can assist your system in achieving a balance in blood circulation and minimizing dizziness by improving your vestibular system. Whenever you rise unexpectedly, your body might lose its balance.

Berberine 100mg

Berberine HCL is an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial compound that is supposed to help fight various illnesses while also promoting general health. It typically safeguards your body against infection and the transmission of poisons to your blood and brain by shielding it from viruses and bacteria.

Resveratol 40mg

Many individuals are given resveratrol to broaden their restricted blood vessels, which helps your body enhance blood and oxygen flow to numerous organs, including the brain, to support equilibrium and hearing health. It is primarily utilized to broaden and loosen blood vessels so that your body receives adequate circulation and blood flow daily.

Milk Thistle

One of several ancient herbs for treating impaired brain cells includes milk thistle. Its active ingredients increase the balancing system by reviving brain cells, tissue and promoting the neurological system’s well-being. Milk Thistle is commonly used to treat conditions with blood flow and regulation.

Cayenne

This is a type of pepper that comes with several health benefits. Here are some of the advantages cayenne has to offer:

  • Aids digestion.
  • Migraine pain is relieved.
  • Prevents the formation of blood clots.
  • Supports the detoxification process.
  • Pain in the joints and nerves is relieved.
  • This pepper aids weight loss.
  • It acts as an anti-irritant.
  • Boost your metabolic rate.

Korean Ginseng

This ingredient is known to provide your body with a significant energy boost. In addition, it helps in rejuvenating your body and helps it get rid of all the accumulated toxins.

Banaba

Banaba is utilized to strengthen the balancing system by promoting metabolic switch activity. This ensures that your body digests and works appropriately.

These are the ingredients used in the making of this supplement. Moreover, this supplement is manufactured in an FDA-approved facility, and they also follow GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices). This solidifies the fact that this supplement is safe to use.

Each bottle contains 60 capsules, contains no toxins, and is non-habit-forming. As per experts, you should consume two capsules every day with a meal. In addition, you should take it regularly as it helps your body adjust to the changes it will be going through.

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Where To Buy Claritox Pro?

You can buy this supplement from the official site, which isn’t available anywhere else. This has been done to reduce the number of people falling for scams and other fake deals.

Head over to their official site to buy it. Here are the pricing options available:

Additionally, the manufacturers also provide a 60-day cash-back guarantee, which means that you can always get a refund for it if you are not satisfied with the supplement. For further information, customer service can be contacted via:

  • Email: contact@claritox.com
  • Address: 37 Inverness Drive East, Suite 100, Englewood, Colorado, 80112

So if you want to get rid of vertigo symptoms and lead a healthy life, make sure you grab your supply of Claritox Pro as soon as possible.

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More Like This: Serenity Prime Reviews: Does It Work? Real Consumer Warning!

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The links contained in this product review may result in a small commission if you opt to purchase the product recommended at no additional cost to you. This goes towards supporting our research and editorial team and please know we only recommend high quality products.

Disclaimer:

Please understand that any advice or guidelines revealed here are not even remotely a substitute for sound medical advice from a licensed healthcare provider. Make sure to consult with a professional physician before making any purchasing decision if you use medications or have concerns following the review details shared above. Individual results may vary as the statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Previous Covid infection may not offer long-term protection, study finds | Coronavirus

  • June 17, 2021

Previous infection with coronavirus does not necessarily protect against Covid in the longer term, especially when caused by new variants of concern, a study on healthcare workers suggests.

Researchers at Oxford University found marked differences in the immune responses of medical staff who contracted Covid, with some appearing far better equipped than others to combat the disease six months later.

Scientists on the study, conducted with the UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium, said the findings reinforced the importance of everyone getting vaccinated regardless of whether they had been infected with the virus earlier in the pandemic.

“If you look at the trajectory of the immune response after infection, mostly it is still detectable six months later, but it’s highly variable between people,” said Eleanor Barnes, a professor of hepatology and experimental medicine at Oxford and a senior author on the study.

“That is quite different to vaccination. If you vaccinate you get a really robust response, but with natural infection there’s much more diversity in responses.”

The researchers analysed blood samples from 78 healthcare workers who had Covid, with or without symptoms, between April and June last year. The blood was checked monthly for up to six months post-infection for a range of immune responses. These included different types of antibody that target the virus, B cells that make antibodies and retain a memory of the disease, and T cells, which reduce the severity of disease by killing off infected cells.

Writing in a preprint, which has yet to be peer-reviewed, the authors describe how they used a machine learning system called Simon, for Sequential Iterative Modeling Over Night, to see whether a person’s early immune response and the severity of their infection could predict their longer-term immunity. Dr Adriana Tomic, the first author on the study, said a signature in the antibody and T-cell response at one month predicted how robust the antibody response would be at six months.

The majority of people who produced a weak immune response at one month had no detectable antibodies that could neutralise the Alpha variant, first seen in Kent, at six months. None mounted neutralising antibodies against the Beta variant first spotted in South Africa. The researchers have yet to analyse data for the Delta variant now dominant in the UK.

While most of the healthcare workers who developed symptomatic disease had a measurable immune response six months later, more than a quarter did not. More than 90% of those who had asymptomatic infections had no measurable immune response six months later, the researchers found. The work is part of the protective immunity from T cells to Covid-19 in health workers (Pitch) study, funded by the Department of Health.

“In our view, previous infection does not necessarily protect you long-term from Sars-Cov-2, particularly variants of concern,” said Barnes. “You shouldn’t depend on it to protect you from subsequent disease, you should be vaccinated.”

The wide variability in immunity triggered by natural infection in part reflects the radically different exposures people can have to the virus while going about their lives. Immunity from vaccination is more reliable because people are given a standard dose in a standard way.

Danny Altmann, a professor of immunology at Imperial College London, who was not involved in the study, said the findings cautioned against simple assumptions around how immunity waned with time. “People show rather diverse trajectories after infection, but immunity often seems to hold up well at six months,” he said. “Most of all, studies such as this remind us that policy decisions on ‘boosting’ need to be evidence based in the context of a strong programme of immune monitoring.”

New therapy extends breast cancer survival rate, prevents reoccurrence

New research is first to show how key gut bacterium trains infant immune system

  • June 17, 2021

DAVIS, CA, June 17, 2021 — Research published today in the journal Cell is the first to establish how a specific gut bacterium, activated Bifidobacterium infantis EVC001 (B. infantis), influences immune system development in infants, and could thereby reduce the risk of allergic and autoimmune conditions later in life.

While prior studies have shown a correlation between a lack of beneficial bacteria in the infant gut and the development of allergies and autoimmune diseases, this groundbreaking research, Bifidobacteria-mediated immune system imprinting in early life, found the presence of bifidobacteria, specifically the B. infantis EVC001 bacterial strain, early in a breastfed infant’s life, programs naïve immune cells away from responses associated with immune-related conditions while producing regulatory cells that improve the body’s ability to control inflammation.

The study also confirms the critical window of opportunity for impacting immune system development and reducing systemic inflammation is within the first 100 days of infancy.

The immune system normally guards against bacteria and viruses by marshalling specific immune T-cells to recognize and attack the foreign invaders in the body. The adaptive immune system at birth is naturally a blank slate; it has had very little exposure to viruses or dangerous bacteria, so immune cells, called naïve T-cells, have yet to be programmed accordingly. In immune disorders and allergies, these cells are misprogrammed early on, by harmful bacteria or inflammation, to attack normal healthy cells in the body. Researchers have been working to determine how this misprogramming happens, to enable clinicians with solutions to reduce the risk of childhood allergic and autoimmune conditions.

Study Details


For the study, researchers found that infants who lacked beneficial microbes able to metabolize complex sugars in breast milk, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), had disordered development of immune cell networks and significantly increased systemic inflammation.

Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that gut bacterial metabolites and host factors from breastfed infants that lacked B. infantis EVC001 in their gut microbiome programmed naïve immune cells toward Th2 and Th17, two immune cell types associated with the development of autoimmune and allergic diseases.

In contrast, breastfed infants fed B. infantis EVC001 skewed those naïve immune cells toward Th1, an immune cell type that allows the body to properly react and rid itself of dangerous pathogens. Researchers also found far greater levels of interferon Beta (IFNβ) in the B. infantis EVC001 isolates, which is an important regulatory mediator that improves the body’s ability to control inflammation and viral infections.

Additionally, the research shows that the unique genetic capacity of B. infantis EVC001 to fully metabolize human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) produced the bacterial metabolite indolelactate (ILA). ILA, in turn, amplifies a broadly immunoregulatory factor, Galactin-1, effectively silencing Th2 and Th17.

“More than 90 percent of newborns have a severe deficiency of B. infantis; this study is an exciting step forward in our understanding of the role of B. infantis EVC001 in the positive programming of immune cells and how it actually changes the trajectory of immune system development to protect against inflammation,” said Dr. Bethany Henrick, PhD, first and corresponding author of the study and Director of Immunology and Diagnostics at Evolve BioSystems. “For the first time we’ve been able to demonstrate that the unique ability of B. infantis EVC001 to fully break down HMOs and the abundance of HMO utilization genes in the microbiome is directly correlated with decreased enteric and systemic inflammation.”

The study examined the development of immune system changes in 208 infants born at the Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden between April 2014 and December 2019, evaluating bifidobacterial species and other microbes expressing HMO utilization genes. To further assess the beneficial effects of HMO utilization gene expressing microbes, a second cohort of the study involved 40 breastfed infants in California, with half receiving B. infantis EVC001, a strain of Bifidobacterium possessing all HMO utilization genes, and the other half given no supplementation.

“These are important findings because, while they point to the disturbing fact that infants lacking B. infantis – unfortunately, now the norm in developed countries – can’t properly metabolize HMOs and are missing the critical window to develop a healthy immune system, it also shows that there’s a simple fix; feeding breastfed babies B. infantis EVC001 early in infancy can shut down inflammatory processes and reduce the life-time risk of developing immune-mediated diseases,” said Dr. Petter Brodin, MD, PhD, consultant pediatrician and lead author of the study and Professor of Pediatric Immunology at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden.

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About Evolve BioSystems, Inc.

Evolve BioSystems, Inc. is a privately-held leading microbiome company dedicated to discovering and implementing solutions that improve the short and long-term health of infants worldwide. Launched at the University of California, Davis, following more than a decade of pioneering research at the Food for Health Institute, Evolve is a portfolio company of Horizons Ventures, Cargill, Manna Tree Partners, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Johnson &Johnson Development Corporation. Since 2014, Evolve has built substantial science and technology assets, focused on the nutrition, biochemistry, physiology of the developing infant gut microbiome. The company’s breakthrough research shows that nine out of ten U.S. infants are suffering from Newborn Gut Deficiency, a dramatic shortage of key good bacteria in the infant gut microbiome. Together with clinical research partners all over the world, Evolve is on a mission to establish B. infantis EVC001 as standard-of-care for all infants – for a better life-long health trajectory.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

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