A big brown dog laying and resting in a green field with mouth open and one ear up.

Best Dog Vitamins For Enhanced Health and Long Life

  • June 16, 2021

Best dog multivitamins Zesty Paws are the best dog vitamins Zesty Paws 11-in-1 Bites

Support your pup’s joints, gut, skin, and bladder health with this all-in-one pick.

Best dog multivitamin powder wholistic canine is the best multivitamin for dogs Wholistic Canine Complete

Packed with protein, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics to support your furry best friend’s overall health.

Best vitamins for senior dogs vetriscience is the best multivitamin for senior dogs VetriScience Canine Plus Senior Multivitamin

Boost your older pooch’s daily nutrition with this affordable and chewable multivitamin.

Many canine diets consist of kibble, dog treats, maybe a few scraps from their human’s dinner table, and, well, more kibble. While this may be delicious to the dog, it doesn’t always provide the most healthy dietary balance your pooch requires. Leading a healthy, happy life goes hand-in-hand—or paw-in-paw—with a well-balanced diet. As with humans, dogs have some basic vitamin and nutrient requirements that their bodies need to process in order to be in good health. These may include vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, B-complex vitamins, calcium, folic acid, and phosphorus. Fortunately, these vitamins are generally included in any dog food labeled “complete and balanced.” That said, sometimes it may be necessary to complement your pup’s meals with extra pet vitamins and supplements, particularly if you feed your pooch homemade food or a raw diet. Here are a few of the best dog vitamins and supplements, formulated to help your pet live a long and thriving life.

Understanding how to choose the best dog vitamins

Choosing a dog vitamin doesn’t have to feel like a difficult task, but there are some important factors to keep in mind. First and foremost, discuss with your veterinarian which vitamins and minerals will most benefit your dog’s specific health needs if any. If you are concerned that your dog has been exhibiting any recent health declines or new behavioral issues, you may want to ask your vet to run some tests. They may recommend a supplement for a particular vitamin deficiency, to complement a homemade or raw diet, or to provide extra support if your dog has mobility, skin, and coat, or cognitive issues. Once you have a comprehensive understanding of which types of vitamins and minerals may best aid your pup’s health, it then makes sense to choose one of these dog products.

When researching dog multivitamin brands, you’ll want to ensure they are reputable, with clear labeling of ingredients, health certifications from sources like the NASC (National Animal Supplement Council), and can provide proof of clinical studies of their products. Avoid brands that promise a solution to a medical issue, because vitamins are only health aids, not complete fixes. The best dog vitamins come in many different forms—chews, powders, pills, drops—so consider what will be easiest for you to administer and for your dog to ingest. Finally, make sure that you are only giving your dogs vitamins that have been formulated for canines. Human vitamins are specifically formulated for people and, as a result, may be toxic to your pet, so do not use them as if there were dog supplies.

1. Look for all-in-one dog vitamins

With so many dog supplements to choose from, your pet store bill can start to add up. Instead of buying multiple products that offer one or two vitamins or minerals per container, you and your pup may be better off opting for a multivitamin. So. Much. Easier. 

2. Try an easy meal mix-in

For some dogs, anything in pill form will have them lunging for the door. If your dog just can’t get on board with a vitamin in capsule or pill form, you may want to try out a powder instead. Dog vitamin powders contain many of the same multivitamins as you’d find in a pill, but are sold in a powder pack, generally by the pound. Depending on your dog’s size and weight, you’ll have to adjust the dose according to the product’s specifications, but vitamins in powder form should last you and your pup a while. A powder dog vitamin formula should be super easy to give to pets as you can mix it in with their food, so they’ll barely notice their mealtime has been enhanced by some incredible dog supplements.

3. The best dog vitamins that won’t break the bank 

Generally speaking, dog vitamins are quite affordable, costing just a few cents per pill or per serving when you break down the economics. That said, the products listed below have been specifically chosen based on and target dog age. Coming in at less than $13 for a pack of 60 vitamins—or less than $0.20 per vitamin—these dog supplements will be easy on the wallet and positive for your pooch’s well-being.

Best dog multivitamin: Zesty Paws 11-in-1 Bites

Zesty Paws 11-in-1 Bites

These premium soft-chew multifunctional supplements are for adults and seniors of all breeds. Zesty Paws


Zesty Paws is a reputable, NASC-approved brand that has created this 11-in-1 bite to help aid your dog with joint support, heart, gut and immune function, skin health, antioxidant support, liver and urinary tract health, and brain function. Ingredients include cranberry, curcumin, glucosamine, a gut health blend, omega 3 fish oil, and more vet-approved nutrients. Each Zesty Paws container provides 90 chews in an inviting chicken flavor, so your pup will likely think these dog vitamins are a tasty treat. An Amazon bestseller, this is one of the best dog vitamins you can find on the market.

Best dog multivitamin powder: Wholistic Canine Complete

Wholistic Canine Complete

The Wholistic Canine Complete multivitamin powder comes from a trusted, holistic health care brand. Wholistic Pet Organics


This organic dog vitamin is ideal for all dog ages and contains many vitamins, minerals, prebiotics and probiotics, digestive enzymes, fatty acids, and antioxidants created with your dog’s long-term health in mind. Certified by the NASC and made in the U.S., this multivitamin comes from organic products free of any by-products, synthetics, GMOs, or artificial flavoring. It promotes softer skin and a thicker coat, improves allergy symptoms, and boasts a great source of protein. Sprinkle the appropriate amount of vitamin powder in your dog’s food and you should see results in a few short weeks. 

Best affordable puppy vitamins: Nutri-Vet Multi-Vite Chewable Supplement for Puppies

The Nutri-Vet Multi-Vite chewable puppy vitamins are liver-flavored, meaning it can also be used as a treat while in puppy training mode. This product contains the full spectrum of minerals and vitamins to promote a healthy life and has been developed by veterinarians to help build strong bones and teeth, fight infection, support the nervous system and brain function, and help joint and immune health. Plus, at only $10.99, you’re paying about $0.18 per chewable, which is good news for your wallet.

Best affordable dog vitamins for seniors: VetriScience Canine Plus Senior Multivitamin

VetriScience Canine Plus Senior Multivitamin

VetriScience’s Canine Plus Senior comes highly recommended for senior and geriatric dogs, with over 25 balanced ingredients that target healthy aging. VetriScience Laboratories


These vitamins for dogs come in duck-flavored chews that are not only delicious, but also gentle on your senior friend’s mouth and gums. When dogs age, it becomes even more important to care for their immune systems. The VetriScience Canine Plus Senior Multivitamin does just this with a perfect mix of antioxidants, including vitamins A, C, and E, as well as selenium, all proven to help fight cell damage, boost the immune system, and keep your dog’s disposition sharp.

Best affordable dog vitamins for all ages: NaturVet All-in-One Dog Supplement

NaturVet All-in-One Dog Supplement

Not only does this dog vitamin give the comprehensive wellness care your pet needs, every product bought supports pet rescue groups. NaturVet


Made for furry friends of any age over 12 weeks, this dog vitamin features 4-in-1 support and utilizes a resealable jar for continued freshness. Your dog will appreciate the many improvements in his joints and digestion, as well as healthier skin and a shiny, thick coat. Plus, NaturVet is an FDA- and NSAC-audited manufacturer, meaning you can feel at ease knowing the company is safe, regulated, and reputable.

Best dog vitamins FAQ:

Is it OK to give my dog a multivitamin?

You should always check in with your veterinarian before giving your dog anything new to ingest, whether that be multivitamins or food. Chances are there will be no problem and your vet will give you the OK, but they can also help you identify and understand which types of vitamins and minerals your dog will benefit from most.

What are the most important vitamins for dogs?

Generally speaking, the most important vitamins and minerals for dogs include vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, B-complex vitamins, calcium, folic acid, and phosphorus. There are plenty of other vitamins for dogs that can boost overall health and well-being, too. Most essential vitamins are already found in pet food labeled “complete and balanced,” but be sure to check with your vet to see if your dog has any specific deficiencies that could be supported via a multivitamin.

How can I boost my dog’s immune system?

To boost your dog’s immune system, giving them a daily multivitamin is a great option. Once you’ve confirmed it is safe for your pet by speaking with your vet and researching the product’s ingredients and brand reputation, you can determine the right type of immune support. Most products will show results within a few weeks. 

The final word on the best dog vitamins and supplements

The saying “health is wealth” is not only true for people, but also for our furry friends. As pet owners, we want our dogs to feel safe, healthy, happy, and sharp for as long as possible. By complementing a balanced diet with specifically formulated dog multivitamins, you’ll be setting your dog up for success. And given the abundance of high-quality, trustworthy, and comprehensive vitamins for dogs available today, you can feel good about giving your pooch a tasty, veterinarian-approved treat each day.


Watsons’ 4-day sale offers up to 50 percent off on vitamins, supplements

Watsons’ 4-day sale offers up to 50 percent off on vitamins, supplements

  • June 10, 2021

SHOPPERS can get up to 50 percent off on their favorite vitamins and supplements as Watsons stages the second run of the “Vitamins Super Saver Sale” from June 10 to 13, 2021.

Some of their favorite vitamins and supplements will be at 50 percent off if they buy 100 capsules or tablets. This offer is good while supplies last and for a limited time only. This is their chance to stock up at super low prices.

Included in the sale are Watsons Ascorbic Acid Tablet, Berocca, Conzace, Watsons Carbonate Tablet, Watsons Multivitamin with Iron Capsule, Puritan’s Pride Zinc Gluconate, Watsons Biotin Gummies with Amino Acid and Lecithin for Adults, Propan Fit and many others.

Even during quarantines and lockdowns, Watsons has given Filipinos access to vitamins, supplements, OTC medications and personal products through its 800+ stores nationwide and its online channels.

Here is a quick guide from Watsons on what vitamins and supplements to get in the Watsons Vitamins Super Saver Sale and what they are for:

Vitamin C is involved in many body functions, including immune system health and wound healing. Conzace has the highest levels of Zinc, Vitamins A, C and E to help boost immunity and improve the condition of hair and skin, while Pearly C Sodium Ascorbate + Zinc Capsule helps treat and prevent Vitamin C deficiency.

One should be able to get all the nutrients he needs from food but a diet that’s not well-balanced and certain conditions and illnesses such as pregnancy and diarrhea can cause deficiencies. Cecon Plus Tablet Multivitamins + Zinc helps correct Vitamin B-complex, Vitamin C and Zinc deficiencies while Iberet Folic-500 is a multivitamin and iron tablet that can treat or prevent vitamin deficiency due to poor diet, certain illnesses or during pregnancy.

Vitamins are for people of all ages. Nature’s Way Kids Smart Vita Gummies Multi-Vitamin + Vegies has eight important nutrients to help support healthy growth and development, while Puritan’s Pride ABC Plus Senior Multivitamin Minerals with Zinc, which helps boost the immune system, is specially formulated for adults over 50.

Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells against free radicals, which may cause heart problems, cancer and other diseases. Nutrabliss by Watsons Apple Cider Vinegar Capsule has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. MGX+ Mangosteen Rind Capsule has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

One can shop now at any of Watsons 800+ stores nationwide (https://www.watsons.com.ph/store-finder), online via (https://www.watsons.com.ph) or mobile app (http://bit.ly/WatsonsMobileApp) or via call and delivery service (https://www.watsons.com.ph/call-and-delivery-list-of-stores).

Wellness is just a tap or a click away. One should hurry and enjoy the discounts offered at the Watsons Vitamins Super Saver Sale. This is a rare wellness opportunity one shouldn’t miss. Shoppers can use their Watsons Card to earn points.

For more updates, one can follow Watsons’ social media pages on Facebook and Instagram at @watsonsph. SPONSORED CONTENT

Prevent Cold & Flu with Vitamins + Antioxidant Defense

  • June 8, 2021

By Storyhub

Your immune system is critical for ensuring your survival; it serves as the first line of defense against diseases, bacteria, and other viruses that may create damage in your body. It is an intricate system that identifies and destroys abnormal cells, clearing your body of any pathogens to keep your body in a state of homeostasis. Basically, it’s always on alert to keep you healthy.

There are many immune boosters present in the foods you eat, and if you’re not keeping a watchful eye on all the ingredients in your daily meals, you may be deficient when it comes to the vital nutrients and vitamins your body needs to ward off illness. This is where immune boosters come in. They’re packed with the vitamins, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory components your body needs to keep colds and flu symptoms from taking over and rending you immobile in bed for days or weeks.

Below, we share our top five immune boosters and include details about their ingredients so you can make the best choice when choosing an immune booster to assist with your overall health.

Top 5 Summary

  1. Immune Support – Editor’s Choice
  2. Immune Defence – Top Products for Families
  3. Immune Complex – Best Vegan Friendly Supplement
  4. Turmeric & Ginger – Ideal for Superfood Boost
  5. Mushroom Defense – Best for Immune & Cognitive Support

How Did We Make This List?

When it comes to choosing a solid immune boosting product, there are several considerations we had to think about. Mainly, we’re looking for transparency when it comes to ingredients and positive experiences detailed by consumers. Below, we list what we took into consideration when putting this top five list together.

Consumer reviews and comments detail personal experiences, which provide us with a look into their experiences with the immune boosting products. Positive reviews confirm the promises of the products, while less than stellar reviews provide an in-depth look of what areas could use improvement. We only chose products with reviews and comments that are overwhelmingly positive.

How well each brand describes their products is of paramount importance. As a consumer, you should understand why the product was created, what ingredients it contains, and how each of those ingredients supports your immune system. We look for transparency in this area.

We look for products that have a clear ingredients list and don’t try to sneak in fillers or synthetic ingredients. Each ingredient must serve a purpose and the product formulations should keep your overall health in mind, without cutting corners through the use of unnecessary components.

Immune System Boosters: In-Depth Product Reviews

1. Immune Support – Editor’s Choice


  • Made in the USA
  • Sourced from GMP certified facility
  • Non-GMO
  • Lab-tested
  • Save with bundle purchases


  • Not appropriate for pregnant or nursing mothers

Enjoy an array of botanical extracts in VitaPost’s Immune Support dietary supplement to gain the nourishment your immune system deserves. This is an everyday supplement that uses advanced herbal extracts along with antioxidant support to support your wellness. The primary ingredients in Immune Support include:

Vitamin E is a strong antioxidant that works alongside your immune system to keep your system thriving, no matter your age. Green tea extract is also a powerful antioxidant that supports your immune system function while boosting your body’s other antioxidants as well.

  • Beta-Glucans and Graviola Leaf

Beta-glucans are the harmless sugar-chains that occur naturally in fungi and bacteria. Since the body recognizes these as pathogenic, it is able to build resistance to beta-glucans when they are introduced into the body. This is how beta-glucans work to support your immune system. The Graviola leaf is also known to support your immune system, so you get double the support with these two ingredients.

  • Mushroom and Herbal Complexes

With a combination of Reishi, Maitake, and Shiitake mushrooms, this formula boosts both immune and antioxidant properties.

Immune Support’s formula is well-rounded, incorporating ever-important antioxidants that fight free-radicals and oxidation while also utilizing the benefits of herbal extracts to support your immune system. Their formulation includes a powerful list of beneficial ingredients to power your immune system and keep it strong, fighting against diseases and pathogens that may cross your path at any point.

Click Here for the Best Price on Immune Support

2. Immune Defence – Top Products for Families


  • 100-day money back guarantee
  • Premium quality ingredients
  • Free worldwide shipping
  • Vegan friendly


  • Some people may not enjoy the taste of the lozenges

Immune Defence offers support for your whole family, providing healthy supplements for men, women, and children over four years of age. They have three main products:

  • Immune Support Gummies for Kids

These gummies are suitable for children four years and older and are formulated with elderberry, zinc, and vitamin C. They taste like berries, which makes them an easy to chew, tasty treat for your little ones. These are especially important for your child’s growing years because it helps boost their immune system and they’re yummy, so you won’t have to fuss with little ones about daily doses because they’ll look forward to the flavor. These gummies are great for year-round care, especially during flu season, when most of their peers are catching bugs at school and daycare.

  • Immune System Support Lozenges

These zinc lozenges are complemented with rosehip and acerola to not only support your immune system, but help you recover if you happen to catch a cold. They can be taken by children twelve years and older and provide vitamins A, C, and E to power your immune system and improve your recovery time should you fall ill. They taste like aniseed and are quick to dissolve on your tongue. They’ll soothe your throat on the way down too. No matter if you’ve gotten sick and want to kick it quick or if you want immune support strong throughout the year, these lozenges are great to have on hand because of their vital immune-boosting nutrients.

  • Immune Support Plus Capsules

These capsules contain elderberry, zinc, vitamin C and vitamin D to keep you in good health throughout the year. All you need is one capsule per day to keep your body supported because they contain 425mg of elderberry, 35mg of zinc, and 90mg of vitamin C – which is considerably more than other similar products available on the market.

Click Here for the Best Price on Immune Defence

3. Immune Complex – Best Vegan Friendly Supplement


  • Third party lab tested
  • Non-GMO
  • Sourced from a GMP certified facility
  • Vegan friendly


  • Only available in capsule form

Immune Complex offers veggie capsules that help you incorporate more vitamins, botanicals, and zinc into your regular diet. The herbal extracts work wonders to provide nutritional support that strengthens your immune system. This product contains three main ingredients, including:

Elderberry is the name commonly used when referring to the Sambucus tree, which is a tree grown all over the world for its health advantages. Elderberries are packed with antioxidants and they support your immune system to encourage your best health.

Turmeric has an earthy flavor and it’s often used in curries, where it colors the food a deep yellow. It provides potent antioxidant benefits, it supports your immune system, and it has a strong anti-inflammatory effect.

Echinacea is a beautiful flower that has been used within Native American wellness traditions for ages. It hosts tons of beneficial compounds, including antioxidants. When paired with vitamin C, it’s the perfect boost for your immune system.

In addition to the above ingredients, Immune Complex also contains garlic, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, and vitamin B6 for a full range of benefits that are especially vital for a well-functioning immune system. Vitamin C, for instance, is necessary for your wellbeing while vitamin E serves as a strong antioxidant that fights against free radicals. When formulated together, all these key nutrients provide well-rounded care for your immune system.

Click Here for the Best Price on Immune Complex

4. Turmeric & Ginger – Ideal for Superfood Boost


  • High quality ingredients
  • Made in the US
  • Includes BioPerine®
  • Supports joint and muscle health


  • Only available in capsule form

Turmeric and ginger are a complementary match of two roots that create the ideal superfood blend. Not only do turmeric and ginger support a healthy immune system, but they also support joint health. This product contains three primary ingredients, including:

The root of turmeric has gained massive popularity all over the globe, due to its reputation for assisting with respiratory system health, joint health, and even alertness. It is a well-known part of the Ayurvedic tradition for all its healing and health-boosting properties.

Ginger is another superfood often used by those who are health conscious. It brings comfort to upset stomachs and supports joint health, all with a distinctive, alluring flavor enjoyed by many.

BioPerine® refers to the extract of peppercorn and long pepper and is a patented formulation. The chemical name for this extract is piperine, and you’re probably familiar with the taste of this pepper, as you likely incorporate it into many of your home-prepared meals. Piperidine is known for its ability to enhance absorption of some nutrients, particularly curcumin. It makes turmeric that much more powerful.

Turmeric is commonly used because of its beneficial effects, but unfortunately, its absorption rate can be low on most occasions. That’s why BioPerine® is such an essential addition to this formula; it ensures you’re getting more of the benefits associated with turmeric. Ginger, often consumed within beverages, offers massive relief if you’re experiencing digestive comfort. It’s a welcome superfood in any household. In addition, it supports your immune system to aid with your overall well being.

Click Here for the Best Price on Turmeric & Ginger

5. Mushroom Defense – Best for Immune & Cognitive Support


  • 10 power-packed mushrooms in one capsule
  • 67 day returns (no questions asked)
  • 24/7 dedicated support


  • Free shipping only on select packages

Mushroom Defense is an immune protector, along with a defender against cognitive decline and fatigue. This unique formula not only protects against bacterial and viral threats, but it also enhances your energy while sharpening your focus and helping your memory. This innovative 10-fold mushroom complex includes the following:

  • Shiitake Mushroom Extract

This extract contains vitamins, minerals, and other health-boosting compounds. Plus, it also contains Lentinan, which is a chemical compound that protects your DNA from oxidative destruction. Shiitake contains antiviral and anti-bacterial properties which strengthen your immune system, help reduce inflammation, and support cardiovascular health.

Chaga is known for its immune boosting properties, including its antioxidants, and has been used as a coffee replacement, even though it is caffeine-free. Chaga helps your immune system function better while also delivering anti-aging support and improving mental clarity. Plus, it promotes liver health and serves as an anti-inflammatory.

Reishi is known as the “Divine Mushroom” in Chinese. This mushroom is filled with immune boosting benefits, but also helps combat fatigue and inflammation. In addition, it promotes cellular health and increases NK cell activity, which assists with the containment of viral infections.

This mushroom gets its name from its appearance because it closely resembles the tail of a turkey. It’s equipped with immune boosting benefits and also aids gut health, promotes respiratory health, and even fights fatigue.

Lion’s mane is a mushroom with unique cognitive enhancing compounds. It serves as a protectant against cognitive decline, it helps improve focus and memory, and it even promotes gut health along with its immune boosting properties.

Maitake mushrooms contain adaptogens, which are properties that assist in the regulation of all the systems in your body. They are rich in antioxidants, contain anti-viral properties, and even help with weight loss – all while enhancing your immune system cells.

  • Royal Sun Agaricus Extract

These mushrooms are from Brazil and have been researched for 50 years. They boost your immune system, fight viruses, are packed with antioxidants, and support your cellular health.

  • White Button Mushroom Extract

White button mushrooms are the most popular mushrooms seen around the world and they protect your DNA from oxidative damage, which not only helps with your physical appearance, but also helps with maintaining mental clarity as you age. These mushrooms improve cellular survival and assist with eliminating threats to your immune system.

Though the name of this mushroom may sound off-putting, it’s been used traditionally for years because of how loaded it is with antioxidants and how well it supports your immune system. In addition, it improves your gut health, protects against cognitive decline, and reduces inflammation.

  • Cordyceps Sinensis Powder

These powerful mushrooms have a hefty price tag at around $9,000 USD per pound. They increase energy levels, contain anti-aging properties, and they support immune function. In addition, they’re packed with antioxidants and are known to enhance NK cell activity.

Mushroom Defense is unique because they incorporate both mycelium and fruiting bodies. Mycelium refers to the roots that live underground while fruit bodies are the mushroom pieces that live above ground. Incorporating both into this formula gives you all benefits offered by full mushrooms. Some of these benefits include:

If you regularly experience a midday crash or have trouble waking up in the morning, you should know it’s not normal to experience this. With proper nutrition, your days should be filled with steady energy without caffeine or other stimulants. When you supplement daily with Mushroom Defense, you experience what it feels like to wake feeling refreshed and go about your day without the need for coffee or an afternoon nap.

  • Improved Cognitive Function

Sometimes the word is on the tip of your tongue, but it just doesn’t come to you. Other times, you may forget an important event or appointment and wonder how that was even possible. When you experience cognitive issues, it can be incredibly frightening and frustrating. With Mushroom Defense, you experience more mental clarity, which means you can focus for longer periods and your memory is improved.

Mushroom Defense is a mushroom complex that gives your immune system a gentle helping hand. This is especially helpful if you suffer from seasonal allergies, as your immune system hops into overdrive to protect you against allergenic invaders. While allergies are your immune system’s natural response to fighting against pollen, with a boosted immune system, your reactions to allergens are not nearly as severe.

Click Here for the Best Price on Mushroom Defense

What are Immune Boosters?

Immune boosters are foods and supplements that keep your immune system in top shape, saving you from frequent colds, keeping you healthy during flu season, and helping you ward off infections. Below, we list a couple of well-known immune boosters:

Garlic is a welcome ingredient in most dishes and it’s one of the most beneficial foods to add to your regular diet to keep you in good health. Garlic is known to not only combat infections, but it is also helpful in slowing down the hardening of your arteries and boosting your immune system to keep you in a state of wellness.

Red bell peppers are packed with Vitamin C and are a rich source of beta carotene, which is an antioxidant that supports cognition. Beyond serving your immune system, red bell peppers also help you maintain healthy skin.

Vitamin C is known to strengthen your immune system, and it’s why many flock to it at the first sign of a cold. Vitamin C powers up white blood cells, which keep your body in the fight against any kind of infection. Since your body doesn’t produce vitamin C on its own, you need the daily boost to keep your immune function in great shape.

Ginger is another common go-to following illness. It helps to decrease inflammation and soothes sore throats and nausea. It has additional benefits, like lowering cholesterol and helping to alleviate chronic pain.

Spinach is also rich in vitamin C and it is filled to the brim with antioxidants and beta carotene, which keep your immune system ready to fight any infection that tries to take hold inside your body.

Turmeric is known for its delightful, yellow color and it is often used in dishes for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is also rich in curcumin, which boosts your immune system and has anti-viral properties.

Green tea is known for its antioxidants and works to increase immune function.

Papaya, like citrus fruits and spinach, is a powerhouse fruit loaded with vitamin C. It also has anti-inflammatory properties to benefit your overall health.

Natural Immune Boosters

Your immune system helps with regulating your body and it’s designed to ward off illnesses and diseases. There are several methods for boosting your immune system naturally, and each is easy to incorporate into your regular schedule. Ensure you are incorporating all of the following into your daily routine to keep your immune system functioning optimally:

Enjoy Nutrient-Dense Foods

Maintain a balanced, healthy diet to boost your immune system. Eat whole foods like vegetables, fruits, and meats, to enjoy the benefits of the nutrients they offer. You should also incorporate healthy omega-3 fatty acids, which can be found in avocados and eggs. Not only does a well-balanced diet keep your immune system functioning well, but it also keeps you in a healthy weight range, which is optimal for good long-term health.

Always Stay Hydrated

When you make sure you’re always well hydrated, you are giving your body the immune system support it needs. Skip the sugary drinks and opt for water instead. Drinking plenty of water helps with your digestive system and supports all of your body’s regular functions.

Incorporate Exercise

To keep your immune system healthy, you should be prioritizing exercise. Choose a moderate intensity for your workouts; the point is to get your heart rate up on a regular basis. Don’t overdo it, especially when you’re already feeling something coming on, because if you overexert yourself while your immune system is fighting off illness, you could lower your immune response.

Nightly Rest

Your body needs a good sleep schedule with deep rest to function optimally. Try to maintain the same bedtime and the same wakeup time, even on your days off. This allows your body to regenerate overnight, so you wake feeling rejuvenated. Your immune system benefits from your sleep cycles, so don’t skimp on your rest.

Supplement with Vitamins

Vitamins are helpful immune boosters that complement the nutrients you receive from the whole foods you consume. Keep your diet clean, with a balanced number of fruits, vegetables, proteins, and healthy fats, and supplement with vitamins and other superfoods to keep your body going strong.

What Weakens the Immune System?

Just as there are ways to boost your immune system, there are actions you take that could cause the complete opposite effect and leave you vulnerable to illnesses and diseases. Avoid the following to keep your immune system healthy.

Excessive Sugar Intake

If you have a sweet tooth, you must be mindful not to overdo it. Sugar is addictive and it can be tough to say no to your favorite decadent desserts. But when your sugar spikes, your immune system is suppressed. And when your immune system is suppressed, you are more likely to catch a cold or flu virus.

Poor Diet Choices

Above we discussed the importance of incorporating whole, nutrient-dense foods into your diet. Cheeseburgers and pizza, though easy to get and often delicious going down, just don’t cut it. Avoid foods with poor nutritional value and stock your refrigerator with all the good stuff so when a craving hits, you can make a good choice that supports your immune health.

Excessive Alcohol Consumption

You may love a good happy hour out with friends or co-workers, but excessive alcohol consumption is also a culprit that weakens your immune system. Limit your alcohol intake to keep your body at its peak.

Sedentary Lifestyle

Exercise is an important component of any healthy lifestyle. You may not have control over certain portions of your day if you work behind a desk; however, you should incorporate movement during your lunch breaks and after work to get your heart pumping and keep your immune system healthy.


Water gifts you with many benefits, including improved cognitive function. When you’re dehydrated, you may experience fogginess, mood changes, and even constipation. Hydrate sufficiently every day to keep your body, including your immune system, in perfect working order.

Poor Sleep Schedule

If your sleep schedule is erratic, your body doesn’t have any predictable way of knowing when it gets a chance to recharge. This can increase the level of cortisol in your body, which is a stress hormone, and stress has a negative impact on your immune system. It can also affect other hormone levels such as testosterone and estrogen. Pick your sleep schedule and stick to it every night.

Benefits of Immune Boosters

Immune boosters, depending on their ingredients, are loaded with many benefits for your overall health, such as:

  • Anti-viral properties to help ward off illnesses
  • Shortening the duration of bacterial and other infections
  • Supporting the body in the fight against any infection
  • Can assist with pain reduction due to anti-inflammatory properties
  • Supporting the respiratory system
  • Supporting gut health
  • Antioxidant support to fight free radicals


Immune boosters are just one component to a healthy lifestyle. When you incorporate an immune booster into a lifestyle that prioritizes your health, including a well-balanced diet and regular exercise regimen, you can bask in all the benefits they offer.

Try Immune Support to garner the benefits of botanical properties. Boost your entire family’s health with Immune Defence or try Immune Complex for a vegan-friendly immune boost. If you’re drawn to superfoods, try the Turmeric and Ginger supplement and if you want to enjoy the cognitive and anti-aging benefits of a unique 10-mushroom compound, opt for Mushroom Defense.

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Vitamins and Supplements Market Size to Reach USD 196.56

Vitamins and Supplements Market Size to Reach USD 196.56

  • June 3, 2021

Pune, India, June 03, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The global vitamins and supplements market size is set to gain impetus from the increasing demand for healthy and innovative products to prevent various symptoms related to coronavirus, such as tiredness, diarrhea, chest pain, and shortness of breath. This information is published by Fortune Business Insights™ in a new report, titled, “Vitamins and Supplements Market, 2021-2028.” As per the report, the market size was USD 129.60 billion in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 196.56 billion by 2028, exhibiting a CAGR of 6.13% during the forecast period. It stood at USD 119.66 billion in 2020.

COVID-19 Pandemic to Spur Demand Backed by Need to Improve Immune System

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the global market positively. Consumers are looking for healthy and nutritional products to enhance their natural defense system. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, for instance, mentioned that more than 50% of the U.S. population consumed vitamins and supplements amid the pandemic. Also, researchers have found that function-specific antioxidants, especially for boosting one’s immunity, are set to create new growth opportunities.

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List of the Leading Companies Profiled in the Global Vitamins and Supplements Market are:

  • Bayer AG (Leverkusen, Germany)
  • Koninklijke DSM N.V. (Heerlen, Netherlands)
  • Archer Daniels Midland Company (Illinois, U.S.)
  • BASF SE (Ludwigshafen, Germany)
  • Glanbia, Plc (Kilkenny, Ireland)
  • Nuleaf Naturals LLC. (Colorado, U.S)
  • Herbalife Nutrition (California, U.S.)
  • Reckitt Benckiser Group plc (Slough, U.K.)
  • NutraMarks Inc. (California, U.S.)
  • Otsuka Pharmaceutical (Tokyo, Japan)


Multivitamins Segment Earned 35.06% in 2020: Fortune Business Insights™

Based on the type, this market is divided into pediatric supplements, calcium supplements, multivitamins, and others. Out of these, the multivitamins segment held 35.06% in terms of the vitamins and supplements market share in 2020. This growth is attributable to the increasing consumption of vitamin A, C, E, & D to reduce deficiencies of micronutrients.

Report Coverage:

Our skilled analysts have presented an accurate picture of the global market for vitamins and supplements by summation, synthesis, and study of data from various crucial sources. They have also included multiple facets of the industry with the main focus on determining the significant market influencers. Thus, the data is reliable and comprehensive. It was collected through extensive primary and secondary research.

Drivers & Restraints:

Increasing Awareness of Preventative Healthcare Products to Augment Growth

The population of children and senior citizens is growing day by day across the globe. This has strengthened the expenditure of people on vitamins and dietary supplements (VDS). Regulatory bodies of various countries are modernizing their norms implemented on the production of vitamins and supplements. Besides, the rising awareness regarding preventative healthcare products among consumers is expected to propel marketing and production efforts by renowned firms.

Furthermore, numerous manufacturers worldwide are utilizing unique technologies to fulfil the high demand. At the same time, the rapid acceptance of such products would bolster the vitamin and supplement market growth. However, these products must go through the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, which can result in procedural delay. This factor may hinder the demand for supplements & vitamins.

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Regional Insights:

High Demand for Traditional Medications to Favor Growth in Asia Pacific

In 2020, Asia Pacific generated USD 54.44 billion in terms of revenue. The adoption of the concept of nutritional food items in the region on account of the rising concerns regarding malnutrition would aid growth in this region. Japan and China are considered to be the leading markets because of the high demand for conventional medicines. In North America, the market is set to grow astonishingly on account of the rising acceptance of healthy intake during hectic work schedules, especially in Mexico and the U.S.  

Competitive Landscape:

Key Players Aim to Conduct R&D Activities to Introduce Novel Vitamins & Supplements

Key Companies operating in this market are striving to strengthen their positions by conducting extensive research and development activities. Some of the others are trying to cater to the high demand created by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Below are two latest industry developments:

  • May 2020: Homart Pharmaceuticals unveiled three new vitamin C products under the Toplife and Springleaf brands. It plans to fulfil the surging demand for immunity boosters amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • April 2020: itSpray introduced BOOSTit across Arizona and Nevada. It is an oral spritz vitamin brand that uses a sublingual delivery system. It can act faster than gummies, powders, and pills.  

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Detailed Table of Content:

  • Introduction
    • Research Scope
    • Market SegHouseholdtation
    • Research Methodology
    • Definitions and Assumptions
  • Executive Summary
  • Market Dynamics
    • Market Drivers
    • Market Restraints
    • Market Opportunities
    • Emerging Trends
  • Key Insights
    • Overview on Global Nutraceutical Market
    • Supply Chain & Regulatory Analysis
    • Global Vitamins & Supplements Price Trend
    • Recent Industry DevelopHouseholdts – Policies, Partnerships, New Product Launches, and Mergers & Acquisitions
    • Impact of COVID-19, Challenges, and Opportunities amid the Pandemic
  • Global Vitamins and Supplements Market Analysis, Insights and Forecast, 2017-2028
    • Key Findings / Summary
    • Market Size Estimates and Forecast 
      • By Type (Value)
        • Multivitamins
        • Calcium Supplements
        • Pediatric Supplements
        • Others (Mineral & Protein) (Mineral & Protein)
      • By Form (Value)
        • Capsule
        • Tablet
        • Powder
        • Liquid & Gel
      • By Distribution Channel (Value)
        • Supermarket/Hypermarket
        • Convenience Stores
        • Speciality Stores
        • Online Retails
      • By Region (Value)
        • North America
        • Europe
        • Asia Pacific
        • South America
        • Middle East & Africa

TOC Continued…!

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Have a Look at Related Research Insights:

Natural Vitamin E Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Type (Tocopherols, and Tocotrienols), Application (Dietary Supplements, Food and Beverages, Cosmetics, and Others), and Regional Forecasts 2019-2026

Dietary Supplements Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Type (Vitamins, Minerals, Enzymes, Fatty Acids, Proteins, and Others), Form (Tablets, Capsules, Liquids, and Powders), and Regional Forecasts, 2020 – 2027

Herbal Food Supplements Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Ingredient (Turmeric, Wheat/Barley Grass, Flax seed/oil, Aloe, Others), By Form (Capsules & Tablets, Oils, Powder and Granules, Others), By Distribution Channel (Hypermarkets/Supermarkets, Convenience Stores, Online, Specialty Stores, Others) Others and Regional Forecast, 2021-2028

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Why Taking Vitamins to Promote Immune Health Is a Good Idea

Why Taking Vitamins to Promote Immune Health Is a Good Idea

  • June 1, 2021
Adobe Stock/freshidea

In the fight against COVID-19, some studies show that vitamins and minerals can help protect us against developing severe reactions.

More than a year into the coronavirus pandemic, our understanding of how best to protect our health is still evolving. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been beating the drum of important preventive measures like wearing a mask, social distancing and frequent hand-washing, some studies also link the severity of COVID-19 cases to vitamin deficiency—particularly vitamin D, explains Donna Paulhamus, clinical director at the University of Delaware Nutrition Counseling, Research and Training Clinic in Newark. While vitamin C and zinc are go-tos for fighting off colds and flu, they’ve proved less effective in reducing symptoms of the current coronavirus.

The link between COVID-19 symptoms and supplements is still in early stages, but the link between nutrition and immune health is indisputable. What, then, should we know now about taking vitamin and mineral supplements for protecting our immune system?

“Firstly, it’s important to understand the function of those supplements, as well as the limits of what they can do for us,” Paulhamus says. “We know that certain vitamins and minerals are important to maintaining a healthy immune system, but you can’t really ‘boost’ your immune system by taking [them]. When it when it comes to vitamins and mineral supplements, enough is enough, and more is not better.”

As a dietitian, Paulhamus knows firsthand that the majority of American diets don’t meet basic guidelines for nutrients that help prevent chronic disease and promote overall health.


Adobe Stock/freshidea

“The link between COVID-19 symptoms and supplements is still in early stages, but the link between nutrition and immune health is indisputable.”

So, it wouldn’t be a bad idea to take multivitamin or mineral supplements if most of us are already working from a deficit, Paulhamus points out. “A healthy diet is really important to immune health functioning,” she says. “If our diets are less than ideal, it’s a reasonable safety net for people who aren’t necessarily able to follow a healthy diet.”

The CDC estimates that about 40 percent of Americans are vitamin D deficient. We get about 50 to 90 percent of our vitamin D intake through sunlight absorbed via the skin, but, as Paulhamus explains, with sunscreens (and weaker sunlight during the winter months), it’s harder for us to produce the amount we need. And while some vitamin D is consumed through foods—like fortified milk and cereals, as well as oily fish like salmon, mackerel, herring and sardines—it’s not nearly enough to meet our daily needs.

For immune system support, it’s also important to maintain the right levels of vitamin B12. Found in animal products like eggs, meat and dairy, B12 in supplement form is especially essential for vegans and vegetarians who won’t derive enough from their diet.

Supplements can help where we are deficient, but don’t overdo it, Paulhamus warns. “Supplements are beneficial to get your levels up to where they need to be, but taking too much can be dangerous.” She advises getting your blood levels tested and supplementing as your doctor recommends.

Millennial super mom Marian Rivera boosts her immune system with Calvit-C

Millennial super mom Marian Rivera boosts her immune system with Calvit-C

  • June 1, 2021
(The Philippine Star) – June 1, 2021 – 6:00am

MANILA, Philippines — Marian Rivera, millennial super mom and one of GMA Kapuso’s versatile actresses known for her roles in Marimar, Dyesebel, Amaya and Temptation of Wife, reveals how she keeps her immune system strong despite her busy lifestyle both as an actress and mom amid the pandemic.

Aside from working out regularly, she emphasizes the importance of taking vitamins that can help not only our bodies but also, and more importantly, our immune system.

Vitamins can naturally be obtained in healthy prepared meals. However, because of our busy schedules, we tend to neglect the importance of good nutrition and substitute it with high-cholesterol, sugary diets.

Vitamins help build and keep our body strong. Let us take for example these basic vitamins and their functions:

1. Vitamin A

This vitamin is key to good vision, a healthy immune system and cell growth. It is mostly found in eggs, broccoli, spinach and most dark green leafy veggies.

2. Vitamin B (B vitamins)

These vitamins have a direct impact on our body’s energy levels, proper brain function and cell metabolism.

They promote the growth of red blood cells, good digestion and proper nerve function. Examples of B Vitamin-rich foods are salmon, liver, milk, beef, oyster, clams and mussels.

3. Vitamin C

When we think of a vitamin that helps protect us from cough, colds and flu, one immediately comes to mind: Vitamin C.

Vitamin C, also known as Ascorbic acid is not only known for helping strengthen our immune system against harmful pathogens, but it is also responsible in keeping proper bodily functions via the development and repair of body tissues, formation of collagen and absorption of iron.

There are two types of vitamin C that are currently available in the market today—acidic and non-acidic. The market favors the non-acidic type for it is gentler on the stomach.

When it comes to non-acidic Vitamin C, Marian Rivera prefers Calvit-C.

Calvit-C is gentle on the stomach especially for those always on the go. It is made up of calcium and sodium ascorbate that may help protect the body against immune deficiencies, cardiovascular disease and help promote eye health.

Because it incorporates Calcium (in a form of calcium ascorbate) as one of its key ingredients, Calvit-C may also help in the development of strong bones and teeth, and promote healthy skin.  

Sodium ascorbate, on the other hand, is a form of vitamin C that has sodium components, which makes absorbing Vitamin C easier, while lowering acidity levels of the body. Sodium ascorbate also serves as an antioxidant that helps keep cells healthy and protected from damage.

With benefits like these, Marian Rivera certainly has made a healthy choice in strengthening her immune system, the safe and non-acidic way.

Experts: Vitamins alone not enough to boost immunity

Experts: Vitamins alone not enough to boost immunity

  • May 28, 2021

PETALING JAYA: With the Covid-19 pandemic raging and many turning to supplements to strengthen their immune system, health experts say a well-balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle should be the top priority.

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia’s Professor of Public Health Nutrition Dr Zaleha Md Isa said those who followed a nutritious diet will tend to have a lower risk of contracting chronic illnesses and infectious diseases.

“A diet to boost immunity must not consist of vitamins alone, but also dietary fibre, minerals, protein, antioxidants, and sufficient water for hydration, ” she said.

Dr Zaleha said there were studies reporting the role of vitamin D in boosting the immune system by enhancing cellular immunity, but said whether the vitamin improved outcomes associated with Covid-19 was still unknown, adding that the same applied to vitamin C.

“Despite its theoretical benefits, evidence does not support the routine use of vitamin C for prevention of viral infections. People should not rely on dietary supplements to prevent or cure Covid-19 unless the effectiveness is proven in clinical trials, ” she added.

Malaysian Pharmacists Society president Amrahi Buang said although taking vitamins was helpful, supplements alone was not sufficient to boost one’s immune system.

“Our immune system is a complex design and is also influenced by factors such as a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle that includes having adequate sleep, exercising and effectively managing stress levels, ” he said.

He added that although clinical studies have shown that vitamins C and D, zinc, garlic, echinacea, elderberry, black seed oil and olive oil have been used as supplements to boost the immune system, these were only complementary in nature.

“A balanced diet is much better. A multivitamin with all the ingredients is good. People must continue to exercise and get exposure to sunlight too. They should also seek advice from community pharmacists when buying supplements from pharmacies, ” he said.

However, in a retrospective analysis of severe Covid-19 patients in Malaysia, researchers stated that the use of high doses of vitamin C in the therapy of severe Covid-19 infection signalled an improved mortality and shorter duration of mechanical ventilation.

Their study, titled “Effects of high dose vitamin C supplementation of severe Covid-19 patients in the ICU: A retrospective analysis”, analysed seven people who were divided into two groups; one where the Covid-19 patient was treated with vitamin C while the other was not.

Dr Foong Kit Weng, one of the researchers involved, said the study was intended to pave the way for further investigation to be done.

He said the study did not conclude strongly to suggest that the use of vitamin C would help Covid-19 patients, adding that they were in the process of getting a bigger study going.

“Vitamin C as a supplement is generally accepted but people should not take such a high dose. The dosage that we used in the study was intravenous six grams a day and that is considered a lot. Even just one gram is a lot as our gut has a limited capacity to absorb vitamin C.

“Even if we take lots of it, it probably would not absorb that much, maybe just 500mg, ” said the intensivist based at Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun in Ipoh.

Dr Foong advised Malaysians to instead follow the SOP and get vaccinated to protect themselves from the virus.

UKM epidemiologist Assoc Prof Dr Azmi Mohd Tamil said the study was a good start “but not good evidence for changing the management of cases”.

Universiti Malaya occupational and public health Prof Dr Victor Hoe said the research was only a retrospective study.

“The results may not be applicable to other Covid-19 patients for the prevention of Covid-19, ” he said.

Dr Hoe said a high dose of vitamin C had its own complications and should only be given under strict medical supervision.

“The only supplement that has been clinically proven is folic acid taken by expecting mothers for the prevention of spinal bifida in infants.

“Supplements should only be taken if an individual has nutrient deficiency. My advice is to consume a balanced healthy diet, sleep well and exercise regularly, ” he said.

The US National Institutes of Health (US NIH), under its Covid-19 treatment guidelines, states that there is insufficient data to recommend or discourage the use of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of Covid-19.

As for vitamin C, it states that there was also insufficient data in its use for the treatment of Covid-19 patients.

Ginger tea, lemon, cinnamon, honey ( Photo: Adobe Stock)

10 Vitamins And Minerals To Take For A Healthy Immune System :: The Pavlovic Today

  • May 27, 2021

Staying healthy in the middle of a pandemic holds the utmost importance. That is why the public is searching for ways to keep a healthy immune system, even after receiving the vaccine. Now, we have the answer for better immunity. 

According to author and physician Dr. Mark Hyman, there are many ways we can use vitamins, minerals, and herbs to build a healthier immune system. 

Take these 10 vitamins and minerals to boost your immune function


—Vitamin D3

—Buffered Vitamin C

—Zinc citrate


Nutritional supplement ( Photo credit: Adobe Stock)

—1-3, 1-6 Beta Glucans 

—Natural antiviral herbs

—Mushroom extracts 



In an article Hyman wrote for Food Revolution Network, he said “There is an increasing number of health claims and the promotion of supplements has also increased in the coronavirus frenzy. There is a lot we don’t know and a lot we do know. It’s important not to go overboard and be sensible.” 

You may not find every one of these vitamins and minerals at your local pharmacy, but that is okay also. Now, there are blogs that are finding ways to incorporate these key vitamins and minerals into recipes. 

According to blogger  Mickey Trescott and certified health coach Angie Alt, there is always a creative way to cook healthy foods you can incorporate into your everyday life. 

On their blog “Autoimmune Wellness,” they share meal plans for individuals that may suffer from autoimmune disorders or illnesses like COVID-19. 

“I serve people who are ready for a revolutionary approach,” said Alt on her blog. “First, I train them on handling the practical details of the process, from planning and preparation to goal-setting and troubleshooting. Then I sprinkle in the insights and encouragement everyone needs.” 

Now, finding ways to boost your immune function has never been easier. By using these 10 vitamins and minerals, and finding ways to incorporate healthy foods into your lifestyle, we can all stay healthy amidst the pandemic. So, are you ready for a better immunity?


Demand for vitamins, zinc supplements soars in second wave. Do they help prevent Covid-19?

Demand for vitamins, zinc supplements soars in second wave. Do they help prevent Covid-19?

  • May 21, 2021

Vitamin C, D and zinc supplements have been flying off the shelves of pharmacies as a raging second wave of Covid-19 has led to a spike in demand for immunity boosters. So much so that there are reports of several cities witnessing a shortage of the over-the-counter supplements that are taken for general well-being.

Experts IndiaToday.in spoke to said multivitamins do act as antioxidants and build immunity but there is no substantial evidence to prove that they help prevent Covid-19. The spurt in panic buying of these supplements is also sometimes driven by unproven social media messages that they boost immunity against Covid-19.

(Infographic : India Today/Rahul Gupta)

Demand for Vitamin C, zinc tablets doubles

Sankha Roy Choudhury, president of the Bengal Chemists and Druggists Association, said in recent months the demand for certain products such as vitamin C, zinc tablets and B complex capsules has suddenly shot up.

“The demand has more than doubled right now. If the demand was 1-2 lakh strips in January, now it has risen to 5-6 lakh strips. Besides, we are now facing a shortage of vitamin products of main or bigger brands,” Choudhury, former joint secretary of AlI India Organisation of Chemists and Druggists, told IndiaToday.in.

READ | Five post-Covid nutrition tips

According to a report quoting the research wing of AlI India Organisation of Chemists and Druggists (AIOCD), over 185 crore pills of vitamin C supplements were sold last year, a growth of over 100 per cent when compared to 2019. Besides, sales of the popular zinc supplement, Zincovit, spiked by 93 per cent in 2020.

A pharmacist in Kolkata said sales of vitamins A, B complex with folic acid, C, D3 and zinc supplements had seen a 375 per cent rise from April 15. “People have become panic-stricken and are procuring such medicines even if not essentially required. There is a scarcity of multivitamins and supply has been erratic. I urge the manufacturers not to increase the price of such medicines at this critical period,” said the owner of GNG Medical.

What suggests vitamins, zinc may work against any virus?

Several minerals and vitamins have antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial properties that can be helpful for immune response against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19.

“In the absence of a widely available treatment for Covid-19, supplementation of micronutrients emerges as an important measure to improve the immune system and to prevent the development of severe symptoms. However, one should not take more than the recommended dose,” said Dr Vineet Malhotra of Diyos Hospital, New Delhi.

Some studies have shown that Covid-19 patients were found to be deficient in Vitamin D. “There is some data showing that the presence of appropriate levels of vitamin D is responsible for preventing acute respiratory distress in patients. Thus, it can be surmised that perhaps vitamin D supplementation may have kept some from getting infected and/or developing serious Covid-19 complications,” Dr Jennifer Prabhu, Internal Medicine specialist, told IndiaToday.in.

In the case of zinc, Dr Prabhu said it has been shown to stop RNA viruses responsible for common cold from replicating, especially in the nose and in the lower respiratory tract, thereby preventing lung injury. SARS-CoV-2 is also an RNA virus and is known to affect the respiratory tract.

ALSO READ | Best practices for treating Covid-19 at home

What studies have found

A study, published in the journal JAMA Open Network earlier this year, found that people taking zinc or vitamin C supplements, whether individually or combined, had no improvement in Covid-19 symptoms or faster recovery when compared with similar patients receiving neither of such supplements.

The COVIDAtoZ clinical trial, conducted by researchers at Cleveland Clinic in the US, enrolled 214 adult Covid-19 patients. “At 50% reduction in symptoms, the study showed no significant difference between the usual care, vitamin C, zinc gluconate or the group receiving both vitamin C and zinc gluconate,” the study found.

“However, few early phase clinical trials have demonstrated benefit in preventing severity of Covid-19 disease in patients receiving vitamin C and zinc supplementation,” said Dr Ganesh Divekar, vice-president clinical operations, SIRO Clinpharm.

(Infographic : India Today/Rahul Gupta)

Benefits of vitamins C, D and zinc; how to get them naturally

Vitamin C

– An antioxidant, it helps to protect our cells from damage
– Boosts our cellular and antibody defence mechanism in fighting against any infection
– Found in fruits and vegetables such as oranges, strawberries, kiwi, bell peppers, broccoli, spinach
– Recommended intake: 75 mg for women and 90 mg for men (per day)

Vitamin D

– Monitors immune system, including immuno reactions to viral infection
– Vitamin D deficiency predisposes one to infections of respiratory tract and mycobacterial infections
– In-vitro cell culture studies have demonstrated Vitamin D plays a role against enveloped viruses (Covid-19 is enveloped virus)
– Important for normal growth and development of bones and teeth
– Found in sunlight, salmon, sardines, egg yolk, shrimp, milk (fortified)

(Infographic : India Today/Rahul Gupta)

Zinc supplements

– Zinc possesses a variety of direct and indirect antiviral properties
– Necessary for activity of several enzymes that aid in metabolism, digestion, nerve function
– Accelerates wound healing, reduces inflammation
– Found in oysters, crab, lobster, meat, sardines, salmon, chickpeas, lentils, black beans, cashew, oats, quinoa, mushroom

On top of everything, experts were unanimous that it is necessary to realise that the most important factors in preventing Covid-19 are mask usage, good hand hygiene and social distancing.

Antitumor immunity against prostate cancer via modulation

Effectiveness of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in COVID-19 – JIR

  • May 20, 2021


A strong and well-built immune system is of absolute necessity for every individual. Immune physiology is strongly correlated with adequate intakes of vitamins and trace elements.1 Healthy dieting, including regular intake of vitamins and trace elements, is responsible for the immune system’s proper function. Henceforth, a sufficient amount of vitamins should be present in our daily meals due to their capacity to influence and strengthen the immune system.2 A recent report demonstrated that the benefits of vitamins to the human body could not be overemphasized. Vitamin supplementation, especially vitamin D, is crucial, especially when vitamins are deficient or insufficient.3 It has been well established that high-quality nutrition is vital in modulating immune homeostasis. Any subclinical deficiency of micronutrients or even protein-energy malnutrition may impair one’s immune responses.4

Enhancement of body innate immunity using vitamin supplements in patients suffering from viral infections has shown positive impacts. A typical example is vitamin A and D supplementation, which increases pediatric patients’ humoral immunity following influenza vaccination.5–7 A review by Calder et al8 suggested that one of the primary ways to protect a person against viral infections is to maintain a well-balanced nutritional status.4 Furthermore, balanced nutrition and a varied diet have been proven to complement vitamin deficit and minimize frequent and unnecessary consumption of marketed vitamin supplements.9 A recent study by Wu suggested nutritional recommendations that could improve the body’s immune system and significantly limit lung damage from COVID-19 and other lung infections.10 In addition to proper dietary intake, lifestyle modification is necessary to prevent and treat viral diseases like the current COVID-19. To complement such efforts, regular fundamental hygienic practices should be maintained, and every individual is urged to comply with rules laid down by the government and the health authorities.11 The typical healthy eating practice encourages everybody to take a minimum of five servings of different (at least 05) fruits since one fruit is not enough to meet and combat the current global pandemic of COVID-19 situation and vegetables each day and the main meal that should contain more carbohydrates. Other components of a healthy diet include a few segments of meat or protein for vegetarians. A reasonable amount of protein-rich foods should be incorporated into daily meals.11 Unfortunately, during the lockdown period, the achievement of a well-balanced diet appeared tedious due to logistics, economic troubles, and movement restrictions, however taking a multivitamin–mineral (MVM) supplement for a limited time is very helpful, especially among the elderly populations who are more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection (Figure 1).12

Figure 1 Fat-soluble vitamins crucial in COVID-19.

Currently, malnutrition increases the burden of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases, which significantly affects the health care systems from an economic standpoint and the nutrition care of any country.13 A higher predisposition to morbidity and mortality caused by protein-energy malnutrition from inadequate dietary intake has been attributed to an increased rate of infections and delayed recovery, leading to a higher demand for several nutrients.14–18 Furthermore, malnourished patients or patients at risk of malnutrition are expected to take extra supplements to improve their energy, protein, and micronutrient levels.4 Notably, for a viral infection like COVID-19 with minimal therapeutic approaches available for prevention and treatment, nutritional strategies for enhancing immunity remain an avenue to be explored.

Furthermore, medical nutrition therapy (MNT) performs an essential responsibility in the averting and management of malnutrition.19,20 The COVID-19 pandemic is predictable to escalate the risk of all types of malnutrition.21,22 Moreover, movement control policy, popularly known as lockdowns, messed up the overall healthcare services that deterred maternal and child health, increasing mortality.23,24 Researchers anticipated child stunting, micronutrient malnutrition, and maternal nutrition to intensify because of the disruption of national and international economies and the food supply chain.25–27 Additionally, 3.9 million children of South Asia have a higher possibility of developing muscle-wasting.27 Thereafter, registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) should be motivated and energetically take the initiative to create and implement appropriate nutrition policy planning to evaluate, avert, and manage malnutrition through a multidisciplinary team-based approach for ongoing COVID-19-infected patients or patients at risk.22,28,29

A most critical warning sign of the vitamin C deficiency ailment is known as scurvy. Scurvy has been frequently correlated with increased susceptibility to infections, predominantly of the respiratory tract, pneumonia, and pulmonary tuberculosis, and remains the primary cause of death.30–32A classic example is the consumption of vitamin C, which plays a prophylactic role due to its ability to facilitate the favorable immune response required for the growth and repair of body tissues.33 It also reduces the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to infections.34–36 It has been reported that patients with acute respiratory infections when receiving intravenous vitamin C followed by serum level increase positively correlate to minimizing the respiratory symptoms.37,38 Multiple studies reported that vitamin C possesses significant anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antithrombotic, and antiviral activities.39–41 Vitamin C positively impacts both innate and adaptive immune systems and exhibits through virucidal activity.33,42–45 Additionally, vitamin C promotes T-lymphocytes’ growth and maturation process and works shoulder to shoulder in improving leukocytes physiology performance regarding the phagocytic and chemotactic process.33,46,47 Moreover, vitamin C, with its antioxidant action, improves the phagocytic property; in this manner, it leads to increased formation of reduced vitamin C (ascorbic acid) from oxidized vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid).48

Furthermore, vitamin E is a potent antioxidant and can modulate the host’s immune functions. On the other hand, several studies demonstrated the harmful effects of vitamin E intake on the immune response. The same view has also been backed up by researchers who discouraged vitamin E supplementation in cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention.5 It was also speculated that a high dosage of vitamin E supplementation might increase all-cause mortality. Taken together, there is a need to investigate the prospects of these vitamins as an effective measure in the treatment of COVID-19.

Objectives of the Study

This review aims and scopes to highlight 1) role of vitamin A, D, E, and K in COVID-19, 2) antiviral effects of vitamin E on COVID-19, 3) immune-boosting effects of vitamin E relevant to combat COVID-19, and 4) to conclude and give prescribers and policymakers direction.

Materials and Methods

Even though the literature investigation is an obligatory segment for systematic review and meta-analysis several critical studies about narrative review encouraged integrating a section about search strategies. In that way, this manuscript comprises the section of materials and methods. The literature search was not systematic but was based on the four core bibliographic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure). We are conscious of the specialty and strength of the web of science; nevertheless, we could not embrace it because of monetary constraints as the current paper did not obtain any fiscal support. The authors depend predominantly on open access journals and access to journals fixed by the Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM), the National Defence University of Malaysia (UPNM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and North South University, Dhaka-1219, Bangladesh. Articles those not available in full-text or not written in English were excluded. The only non-English papers utilized refer to the historical purpose. The study was conducted between early June 2020 and mid-February 2021. The search terms used include “Coronavirus Disease 2019 Virus, Wuhan Seafood Market Pneumonia Virus, Novel Coronavirus 2019, SARS-CoV-2 Virus, COVID-19 Virus, Wuhan Coronavirus, SARS Coronavirus 2, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Trace Element, Biometals, Immune Processes, Humoral Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Adaptive Immune Response”. This was trailed by the snowballing of references cited by essential manuscripts. We had included all types of peer-reviewed articles published in English. Further references were dappled through labor-intensive exploration through the selected references after the first-round search. As this paper is of a narrative nature review, both recent and older publications with historical significance were incorporated.

Role of Vitamin A in COVID-19

Vitamin A plays a vital role in metabolism and immune response. Its pleiotropic influences have been established, ranging from a diverse physiological task in maintaining the required biological need of our system, including well-known fact in improving the eyesight.49 In recent reviews, vitamin A acts by boosting all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), and it is also pivotal in the maintenance of innate cell-mediated and antibody-mediated responses.50 In another study on vitamin A, Field et al ascertained vitamin A’s capacity to resist infection.51 A report by Mora et al proposed a decline in vitamin A uptake has a critical influence on the immune response.52 This was also further testified in the work of Cunningham-Rundles et al, who stated that HIV-infected pregnant women should be encouraged to eat food rich in vitamin A. This is because the decrease in vitamin A could predispose her to an increased risk of congenital HIV and AIDs.53 Food substances rich in vitamin A are primarily vegetables such as carrots, spinach, and sweet potato. These vegetables also constitute a group of fat-soluble compounds such as retinol, retinoic acid, and β-carotene that play a vital role in regulating immune responses and reducing susceptibility to infections.54–58 The mechanism adopted by vitamin A to reduce infection is often through modifying epithelial cell integrity and function, improving specific and non-specific immunity of the host, and lymphoid mass use.59–61

The three primary active forms of vitamin A include retinol, retinoic acid, and retinol. Hence, they are regarded as “anti-infectives as many of the body”s defense mechanisms against infections depend on their constant supply. Semba et al believed that adequate vitamin A supplementation helped reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from different infectious diseases.62 Examples of such conditions include diarrhea, measles, HIV infections, measles-related pneumonia, and malaria. In furtherance to this, vitamin A remains of significant importance as it offers some protection against life-threatening complications and infections such as malaria, HIV, and lung diseases.63–65 Often, they are made refractory to infection during subsequent rounds of viral replication. Nevertheless, Jee et al66 believed that diets low in vitamin A supplements are likely to reduce inactivated bovine coronavirus vaccines’ effectiveness, increasing the calves’ vulnerability to infectious diseases.54,66,67 Another significant link of vitamin A to COVID-19 infection was more pronounced in its activity against the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a kind of coronavirus that was found more in chickens fed with a diet deficient vitamin A as opposed to those provided with adequate proportions of vitamin A. Lastly, vitamin A is envisaged to be a promising option in treating the COVID-19 pandemic by preventing lung infection (Figure 2). The method by which vitamin A and retinoids prevent measles replication is through the up-regulation of mineral elements and the innate immune response in bystander cells free of infections.68

Figure 2 Role of vitamin A in COVID-19.

Multiple earlier studies have reported that type 1 interferons (IFN-I) possess antiviral effects in two closely related coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, either administered single-handedly or in mish-mash with other antiviral medication.69–71 Additionally, retinoids are closely interconnected molecules associated with vitamin A that have robust immune-modulating chattels, together with the capability to escalate and heighten the efficacy of IFN-I.72,73 Moreover, retinoids and their related compounds have been well documented as a safe therapeutic option for over 60 years.74,75 In that way, multiple studies have reported that retinoids possess potential possibilities in the management of COVID-19.73,76,77 Recently, seven core targets of vitamin A against COVID-19 were recognized. Those are MAPK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 1), IL-10 (interleukin 10), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), ICAM1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), MAPK14 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 14), CAT (catalase), and PRKCB (protein kinase C β).78,79 Thereby, several studies reported that vitamin A and related compounds have a potentially beneficial role in the management of COVID-19.77,80–82 Moreover, it has been reported that vitamin A can minimize COVID-19-induced adverse effects on the angiotensin system and minimize medication-related adverse effects.83 On top of these novel beneficial effects, vitamin A, is well known for the positive role in promoting innate and adaptive immunity.2 By this means, vitamin A prevents or diminishes primary and secondary infections.84,85 In consequence, it improves respiratory health by curtailing inflammation and fibrosis.86–88 Furthermore, COVID-19 has been found to persuade inflammatory response/cytokine storms, especially involving liver, lung, and kidney, which further increases the risk of depletion of vitamin A stores that demand supplementation and has the prospect to restore the acceptable status and combat the grave life-threatening disease.88,89

Role of Vitamin D in COVID-19

Numerous physiological, hereditary, and environmental factors account for the emerging disparity and fluctuations in the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, morbidity, and mortality across different nations. Movement restrictions (lockdown) to reduce the exposure to COVID-19-infective cases to ensure social distancing. This measure to control COVID-19 is probably one of the best instruments policymakers incorporated throughout the globe to save their countrymen. Thereafter, COVID-19 risk somewhat minimizes; nevertheless, people are less exposed to sunlight, which has enhanced vitamin D deficiency risk. Vitamin D functions in various ways, including interaction with the nonspecific defense mechanisms, activation of Toll-like receptors, and/or increment in the levels of cathelicidins and β-defensins.90 This influences the acquired immunity by lowering immunoglobulin released by plasma cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines production to modulate T cell function.90 Promising results further described vitamin D nutrients as an essential supplement in treating respiratory tract infections, autoimmune diseases, and pulmonary fibrosis.91 An increase in serum 25(OH)D is associated with increased beneficial bacteria and lowered pathogenic bacteria in the body.92

A classic example is that of three hospitals of Southern Asian origins that conducted a retrospective multicentre study of 212 cases with laboratory-confirmed infection of COVID-19, with a depicted data related to clinical features and serum 25(OH)D levels.93 The results suggested that an increased serum 25(OH)D level in the body could either improve clinical outcomes or mitigate severe to critical outcomes. However, a decreased serum 25(OH)D level in the body could lead to a detrimental consequence.93

The defensive effect of vitamin D against SARS-CoV-2 infection can be linked to its previous effect on other respiratory infections.94 This notion was further supported by a meta-analysis that conclusively affirmed that vitamin D intake is beneficial in acute respiratory tract infections.94 After having millions of the confirmed COVID-19 cases, evidence continually depicts the older populace and malnourished individuals as the most vulnerable groups in this disease condition. Univariate analysis in an Indonesian retrospective cohort study consisting of 780 confirmed cases of COVID-19 depicted that older patients, males sufferers with a pre-existing medical condition, and those with lower vitamin D levels were associated with an increased odds ratio of mortality. When controlling independent variables during epidemiology such as age, sex, and comorbidity, low vitamin D status is strongly associated with increasing cases of COVID-19 mortality.95 Seneca et al demonstrated that older people have an average serum vitamin D level of 26 nmol/L in Spain, 28 nmol/L in Italy, and 45 nmol/L in the Nordic countries. In Switzerland, the intermediate vitamin D level is 23 nmol/L in nursing homes; and data from Italy indicated that 76% of women over 70 years of age have vitamin D levels below 30 nmol/L.96 These estimates of low vitamin D levels among the elderly across Europe showed that the aging population represents the group with the highest risk of morbidity and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 infection.97

The recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Vitamin D are 10 μg/day and 15–20 μg/day for infants and adults, respectively. Additionally, the sources to supply Vitamin D accounts for a limited number of nutritional sources such as cod liver oil, catfish, mushrooms, etc. The content of most of the milk supplies in the US is added with 400 IU vitamin D per quart, and the same applies to the vegetative alternatives (soy milk, almond milk, oat milk, etc.).98 Currently, the majority of breakfast, including bowls of cereal and some orange juice brands, yogurt, margarine, and soy beverages, are fortified with vitamin D. This vitamin is usually added in two different forms that are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol) that collectively increase vitamin D in the blood.99 Based on previous studies, patients with respiratory disease, to rapid and safe increase serum 25(OH)D levels, and patients with low circulating levels (below 50 nmol/L) can be offered vitamin D supplementation of 50,000 IU twice a week.100,101 Overall, doses above 6000 IU/d are needed to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 100 nmol/L, and intakes of vitamin D up to 15,000 IU/d (Figure 3) were found to be safe.101,102

Figure 3 Role of vitamin D in COVID-19.

The effectiveness of vitamin D in reducing infections that may require hospitalization cannot be overemphasized, especially with the rising incidences of COVID-19. Consequently, frontline warriors working in hospitals treating COVID-19 patients linked with increased risk of COVID-19 infection require vitamin D supplementation. This was further justified by a report in which 40 out of 138 admitted COVID-19 cases in Wuhan in the Zhongnan Hospital from 1 to 28 January were healthcare workers.103 It was announced that COVID-19 infected more than 1700 Chinese health workers, out of which 6 already died by 14 February 2020.104 Another study revealed that 152,888 confirmed cases and 1413 deaths among healthcare workers around the globe.105 Medscape reported on 11 March 2021, that over 3000 healthcare workers passed away in the last year because of COVID-19.106 Aljazeera reported on 5 March 2021 that according to Amnesty International, at least 17,000 health workers have died globally from the current global pandemic COVID-19.107 A dose of at least 40–50 ng/mL (100–125 nmol/L) of vitamin D is recommended for individuals as prophylaxis based on observational studies.108–111 During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial that all people in the hospital, including the patients and staff, take vitamin D supplements to raise 25(OH)D concentrations as an essential step in preventing infection spread.112

Before recommending vitamin D to a particular population, initial testing of their vitamin D level at an interval is advocated to determine the dosing levels required. Moreover, there should be followed up to determine whether vitamin D is adequate until vitamin D status is optimal. This is important because once vitamin D deficiency is corrected, giving more vitamin D supplementation may not provide additional benefits.113 The dosing should be done continuously, even without the occurrence of respiratory tract infection. Amid this pandemic, there is difficulty in routine maintenance of vitamin D supplements ranging from its preparation to storage, distribution, and quality control.109,114 With proper blinding, randomized controlled trials with a higher number of subjects from representative populations should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations.

Role of Vitamin E in COVID-19

Antiviral Effects of Vitamin E on COVID-19

Coronaviruses are a family of common RNA viruses. They are potential causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections, followed by pneumonia, which is generally associated with cytokine storm production, inflammation, cell death, and other pathophysiological processes involving redox imbalance or oxidative stress.115 COVID-19 patients are at a higher risk of developing inflammatory responses associated with fatal respiratory distress. Although limited clinical data is available to establish a link between oxidative stress and viral infection due to SARS-CoV-2, many lines of evidence still suggested that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and deprived antioxidant system play a significant role in the pathogenesis and severity of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection.116 Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and other free radicals resulting from oxidative stress are potential causes of cell membrane damage by lipid peroxidation, oxidation, and protein denaturation. According to a few studies, it is often suggested that the onset of severe lung injury in COVID-19 patients is based on the activation of the oxidative stress mechanism coupled with an innate immune response that activates the transcription factor NF-kB resulting in an exacerbated pro-inflammatory host response associated with the pathophysiology of the virus.116–120 In like manner, another study suggests an upregulation of mitochondrial genes and genes responding to oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of convalescent SARS-CoV-2 patients. Stress response protein DNAJB1, differentiation-associated gene IFRD1, cytokine IL-1B, and other genes were overexpressed in the PBMC of these patients. These results support the association between oxidative stress, inflammation, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.121

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that can protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in a membrane from oxidation, regulate RONS production, and modulate signal transduction.122 It facilitates the inhibition of protein kinase C activity by enhancing PKC-alpha dephosphorylation via activation of protein phosphatase 2A by vitamin E has been demonstrated in different cells, and the suppression of platelet aggregation, reduced proliferation of macrophages, and decreased superoxide production in neutrophils and macrophages.123 The high concentration of vitamin E present in immune cells of COVID-19 patients defends them from oxidative damage because of its high metabolic activity and PUFA contents in age-associated dysregulation of the immune system.124–129 Vitamin E donates hydrogen to reactive free radicals, becomes oxidized, and quenches the reactive species produced from oxidative stresses.130–132 Vitamin E antioxidant therapeutic potential can be exploited to prevent oxidative damages associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis due to its scavenging effects.133–135

Immune-Boosting Effects of Vitamin E That Can Help Combat COVID-19

The novel coronavirus pandemic has affected millions of people all over the world. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell via the viral trimeric spike protein binding with the host’s angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor and mainly affects the lower respiratory tract. It also binds to ACE2 on the alveolar epithelial cells after infecting the human body.136 Immediately after binding, it creates a successive immune response through inflammation-related manifestations and recruitment of antigen-presenting cells (APC), which results in an infection of innate and adaptive immunity within the cells.137–139 SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the rapid expression of interferon type-1 (IFN-1), which is known as “initial alarm.”140 IFN-1, upon encounter with the virus, influences the immune cells to the “antiviral state.”140

Consequently, the compromised function of IFN-1 would favor immune evasion. On the other hand, antigen presentation via MHC class 1/2 may be compromised by infected APC, leading to an impaired T-cell response.141 T helper cells produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which in turn recruit lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils, followed by the secretion of vast amounts of cytokines from all these immune cells, an increase in the inflammatory processes. This uncontrolled and massive release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is termed the “cytokine storm,” leading to T-cell suppression.142

Vitamin E, a fat-soluble natural antioxidant, has very little evidence of antiviral actions; instead, it reduces inflammatory cytokine production and improves T cell proliferation by directly impacting membrane integrity, signal transduction, and T cell differentiation. Vitamin E supplementation enhances leukocyte phagocytic activity and functions of neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells.143 Vitamin E is known to affect inflammatory responses in different tissues, including the lungs, via direct scavenging oxidative stress and modulation of oxidative eicosanoid pathways and prostaglandin synthesis; it also influences inhibition of inflammatory mediators and control of apoptotic lipid signaling.144 Different cell-based animal and human studies have shown evidence of the mechanism involved in vitamin E’s immunomodulatory effects of vitamin E. These studies have demonstrated that vitamin E has direct and indirect effects on immune cells, especially on the T cells.145 The immunoregulatory function of vitamin E has clinical relevance as it affects a host’s susceptibility to viral infection, thereby reducing the risk of respiratory diseases.3,146 In the absence of any known effective treatment for COVID-19, nutrients and food supplements that exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects can lay significant protective function. In this light, uptake of vitamin E as a nutrient can be categorized as a vital prospect in treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Figure 4).

Figure 4 The immunomodulatory function of antioxidant vitamin E.

Preliminary Results of Vitamin E Treatment in COVID-19

Investigations of antioxidant vitamins’ effectiveness, especially vitamin E, are still ongoing as a potential treatment for COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, several studies showed immunoregulatory functions and preventive functions from the oxidative disruption caused by vitamin E. This act has contributed to its recognition as potential agents while treating patients infected with COVID-19. Vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium have been demonstrated in various studies to have beneficial effects that reduce oxidative stress in patients with this infection147 including COVID-19.35,148–150 Despite its possible prospects, a lot still needs to be considered as the use of this nutrient will require a long route in its achievement as a successful therapeutic measure for COVID-19 patients.

Prospects of Vitamin E as Adjuvant Therapy in COVID-19

Researchers have often claimed that the effect of COVID-19 infection is particularly detrimental to the health of vulnerable populations such as the elderly and pregnant women.151–156 Older people with severe diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc., are predisposed to COVID-19 infection due to immunosenescence.157–159 Vitamin E administration among elderly patients is likely to help the immune function, which increases the chances of infection resistance and decreases mortality that could be triggered by infection.160–163 Multiple studies regarding vitamin E’s potential benefits to COVID-19 patients indicated that vitamin E and C in combination could be a beneficial antioxidant therapy for cardiac implications of COVID-19.1,164–168 Despite these facts, there is limited evidence that suggests the use of vitamin E as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19.145,169

Sources of Vitamin E

Numerous food sources provide vitamin E, such as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, a vital alpha-tocopherol source with significant amounts in green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals. Other selected food sources include wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds, dry roasted almonds, sunflower and safflower oils, hazelnuts, peanut butter, corn oil, spinach, broccoli, kiwi fruit, mango, yams, sweet potatoes, soybean oil, etc.170

Daily Recommended Dose of Vitamin E in COVID-19 Patients

Even though vitamin E is a potential beneficial nutrient against COVID-19, there is no recommended dosage estimate. However, the recommended daily intake of vitamin E is 15 mg per day for healthy individuals.171

Future Needs for Vitamin E and Its Limitations

Concerning the limited evidence available on vitamin E prospects, scientists are investigating whether, by free radical scavenging mechanisms, immune function, or other possible potential effects of vitamin E, they can prevent or delay the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its associated complications.77,172 Vitamin E supplements more than RDA showed no additional impact; instead, studies reported that very high intake might cause several body complications.173 Moreover, a significant vitamin E limitation can be recommended for their antioxidant actions and immunoprotective functions.147 However, there is still little progress in using them as therapeutic agents for chronic diseases and severely ill patients.

Role of Vitamin K in COVID-19

Vitamin K, one of the fat-soluble vitamins, is essential for synthesizing several proteins – factor II (prothrombin), factors VII, IX, and X involved in regulating blood clotting (coagulation).174 Natural vitamin K is found in two different forms: K1 (phylloquinone), an effective form of dietary vitamin K and mainly found in green leafy vegetables, and K2 (menaquinones).175 They are primarily of microbial origin, and sources are especially from fermented foods like cheese, curds, and animal livers. It is noteworthy to understand that these menaquinones are synthesized by human intestinal microbiota.176–178 The third form of vitamin K is K3 (menadione), which is synthetically or artificially produced.179 The dietary reference intake of vitamin K recommended by Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies is 120 mcg for adult males and 90 mcg for adult females.180 Research has revealed the role of vitamin K beyond blood coagulation.181 Vitamin K’s consumption, combined with anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin, can threaten individuals who take them. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins are vital for calcification (maintaining bone and cardiovascular health), energy metabolism, and inflammation.175,181 To lower the risk of vascular deformation, an adequate intake of vitamin K2 is found to be effective. This is because it activates matrix Gla protein (MGP), inhibiting calcium deposition in the vessel walls.182 Another importance of this vitamin K is its ability to act as a potent antioxidant reducing the lipid peroxidation in the cell by producing vitamin K-hydroquinone, a robust radical scavenging species.183,184 Vitamin K has been found to have an anti-inflammatory activity, which would probably modulate through NF-KB signaling [Figure 5].185

Figure 5 Role of vitamin K in maintaining health.

Typically, the risks for vitamin K deficiency in adults include high consumption of vitamin K antagonists like warfarin (which blocks the vitamin K-dependent pathway, reducing the body’s ability to produce blood-clotting proteins) and individuals with liver diseases and disorders.186 Mothers who are on anticonvulsant medications (to prevent seizure) could act as a risk factor for infants and can lead to a bleeding disorder known as vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) of the newborn.187 Excessive intakes of K1 and K2 forms of vitamin K are not related to abnormal coagulation, and no known associated toxicity has been reported yet.188,189 Nevertheless, in Menadione’s case, it can interfere with glutathione activity (antioxidant), resulting in oxidative damage to the cell membrane. Menadione has also been reported to induce hepatic toxicity, jaundice, and hemolytic anemia.188,189

Consequently, menadione is no longer suggested for vitamin K deficiency treatment.186 Vitamin K deficiency can contribute to excessive bleeding, poor bone development, increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures, as well as several cardiovascular diseases involving vascular calcification and atherosclerotic plaques.179,190 Reduced vitamin K levels have also been reported in COVID-19 patients.191 Several factors may contribute decreased dietary intake,192 high alcohol consumption,193 and excessive use of medications containing anticoagulants like warfarin194 during the lockdown.

Recently researchers observed the link between individuals with vitamin K status and COVID-19 outcomes. Coagulopathy is one of the primary features of poor outcomes in patients who develop sepsis from an infection. Similarly, coagulopathy has been observed in severe COVID-19 patients and is associated with poor prognosis, as observed by Tang et al in 183 consecutive patients.195 One of the most common laboratory findings in COVID-19 patients is the elevation of d-dimers.196 Coagulopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) appear to be associated with high mortality rates. Among the parameters, the d-dimer peak was a strong predictor of COVID-19 mortality.197 The other laboratory markers recommended by the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) for monitoring DIC formation are fibrinogen, prothrombin time, and platelet count.198

Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are at risk of vitamin K deficiency with elevated d-dimer protein levels. This deficiency reduces the functional levels of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X, predisposing them to develop coagulopathy, increasing hemorrhage risk,199,200 and DIC formation. DIC is well recognized for its function in contributing to multi-organ system failure due to the accumulation of thrombus in the microvasculature.201 (86). Also, low vitamin K level appears to be associated with increased elastin degradation,191,202 preferably degrading the lung tissue, resulting in breathing difficulty in COVID-19 patients. Since COVID-19 patients with severe disease are associated with co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, or hypertension, which are linked to reduced vitamin K levels, it is hypothesized that low vitamin K levels might be associated with severity in COVID-19.203–205 Furthermore, a study conducted by Dofferhoff et al measuring the level of desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (DP-ucMGP, inversely related to vitamin K status) and comparing between 123 COVID-19 patients and 184 controls concluded that reduction of vitamin K levels in COVID-19 patients than the controls and is related to poor prognosis (Figure 6).191

Figure 6 Importance of vitamin K in COVID-19 patients.

For the treatment of COVID-19 induced coagulopathy, the use of an anticoagulant is recommended. A study concluded that the use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) might be a better choice of anticoagulant for treating coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients when compared to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).198 However, the correct dose needs to be established. Simultaneously, the use of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rVIIa) is not recommended for COVID-19 patients.206 Likewise, Thachil et al207 suggested the need to switch the patient receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) to direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) for coagulation therapy to reduce laboratory testing frequency monitoring during this pandemic.

Nevertheless, it is not applicable for patients with mechanical heart valves or anti-phospholipid syndrome.207 Since there is a risk of vitamin K deficiency in patients admitted to ICU, administering vitamin K supplements to patients during admission to ICU might help reduce the risk of vitamin K deficiency and further complications.200 However, other studies are still needed to verify the results. Notably, the prescription of anti-vitamin K anticoagulants is not recommended for pregnant or lactating women. It may place the newborn at an increased risk of vitamin K deficiency.208

Furthermore, prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics like cephalosporins can interfere with vitamin K synthesis by intestinal flora and lower vitamin K absorption level by altering gastrointestinal functioning, which should be considered during the infection.209 These studies illustrate that poor vitamin K status is linked to poor prognosis and worse outcomes. Thus, maintained vitamin K2 level is essential for better health, including cardiovascular, bone, and lung health. However, further studies are required to assess whether vitamin K administration improves the severity of COVID-19 patients.

Limitations of the Study

  1. Hence, the study is a narrative review that does not follow the PRISMA methodology for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015).
  2. There are limited data from randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trials to support the efficacy of fat-soluble vitamins in managing COVID-19 infection.
  3. Pre-print publications were also used during the review because research in COVID-19 disease is novel and incessantly developing field of study.
  4. Also, we did not authenticate the quality of the articles used in this study using scales such as the Newcastle–Ottawa scale due to the presence of pre-print articles.
  5. The research has no supporting fund to enable the purchase of articles that are not open to access.


The big data presented by various previous studies depict the efficacy of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, and K in immune-modulation and lowering the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19 infection. These vitamins are pivotal in the maintenance and modulation of innate and cell-mediated, and antibody-mediated immune responses. The fat-soluble vitamins are functional in various ways, including increasing the levels of cathelicidins and β-defensins, regulating RONS production, and influencing the acquired immune system by reducing immunoglobulin secretion by plasma cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines production to modulate T cells function, etc. Vitamin A, D, E, and K boost the body’s defense mechanism against COVID-19 infection and specifically prevent its complications such as cytokine storm and other inflammatory processes, leading to increased morbidity and mortality overemphasis. However, more detailed randomized double-blind clinical pieces of evidence are required to define the use of these supplements in preventing or reducing the severity of the COVID-19 infection.


Based on the supportive evidence, it is crucial to take vitamins like vitamin A, D, E, and K in recommended portion to maintain a healthy immune system and physiology. Future studies are highly advocated to determine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with adverse drug reaction profile and cost. Apart from these fat-soluble vitamins, other micronutrients and minerals are also essential in maintaining adequate immunity. Eating vegetables and fruits containing the above vitamins daily is recommended to maintain a balanced diet. Supplementation of vitamin D can prove a crucial step to help prevent a worse prognosis in COVID-19.

Article Highlights

  • Micronutrients and vitamins are crucial in maintaining the normal health of an individual.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin A, D, E, and K have shown some promise in the therapy of COVID-19.
  • Vitamin A, with its immunomodulation effects and maintaining epithelial integrity, can prove crucial in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • Many trials and retrospective studies have supported evidence of the usefulness of vitamin D in COVID-19 patients.
  • Vitamin E acts as an immunomodulator and reduces the reactive oxygen species, which help minimize the inflammation-induced damage, yet appropriate dosage and usefulness in COVID-19 are yet to be decided.
  • Vitamin K deficiency is associated with various diseases, increasing the severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients with associated co-morbidities.

Professional Annotation

In the light of limited therapeutic strategies for the treatment of viral diseases like COVID-19, research suggests that the exploration of nutritional standards capable of enhancing immune system function at this time is of very high value. Considering this fact, authors have held that a healthy immune system and its ability to function correctly are critical assets for any individual. It is undoubtedly linked to the uptake of several vitamins and trace elements.1,2 The importance of adequate nutrition remains vital in regulating the body’s homeostasis as any sub-clinical deficiency of even a micronutrient could disrupt normal immune functions.4 In support of this view, vitamin supplementations and well-balanced diets have been recognized to influence immune system functions, particularly in viral infections positively.4–7 In preventing and treating respiratory viral diseases like COVID-19 cases, proper dietary intake, healthy lifestyle changes, and maintaining acceptable hygienic practices are unique requirements. However, there are difficulties in obtaining a well-balanced diet in many nations due to the various restriction measures set out to curb this virus.

Notwithstanding this, the uptake of multivitamin–mineral (MVM) supplements in the meantime have been found helpful, particularly for the vulnerable groups.12 Conversely, malnutrition poses a substantial threat to healthcare systems as it increases mortality and morbidity in many nations across the globe.13 A possible explanation for this trend has been linked to a higher rate of infectious transmission and delayed recovery, which in no small measure leads to demand for several nutrients.14

On a positive note, various vitamins remain beneficial in alleviating viral infections and other respiratory conditions. A classic example is vitamin A, a promising option in treating the COVID-19 pandemic and preventing lung infection. It plays a vital role in body metabolism, regulating immune responses from minute details like the eyesight to functional body organs and reducing diseases’ susceptibility.49,54 In support of its role, Semba et al62 stated that an adequate uptake of vitamin A supplements reduces morbidity and mortality resulting from infectious diseases such as diarrhea, measles, HIV infections, measles-related pneumonia malaria. Taking a glance at vitamin D, it can be suggested that numerous physiological, hereditary, and environmental factors account for the emerging disparity and fluctuations in the number of confirmed SARS COVID-19 cases and mortality rates globally. This is exemplary in movement restrictions to reduce the exposure of many individuals to COVID-19, which has enhanced their risk of being deficient in vitamin D. Promising results have extensively described vitamin D nutrients as an essential supplement in treating respiratory tract infections, autoimmune diseases, and even pulmonary fibrosis.91 Next in this category is vitamin E, a beneficial antioxidant therapy in oxidative damages associated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus’s viral pathogenesis due to its scavenging effects. Researchers have opined that the impact of COVID-19 is particularly detrimental to the health of vulnerable populations such as the elderly, pregnant women, and children. Older people with severe diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc., are even more susceptible to COVID-19 infection. The uptake of vitamin E by these patients is likely to help the immune function, which increases their chances of infection resistance and decreases mortality that could be triggered by infection. Nevertheless, several studies showed immunoregulatory functions and preventive functions from the oxidative disruption caused by vitamin E. This act has contributed to its recognition as potential agents while treating patients infected with COVID-19. The immunoregulatory process of vitamin E has clinical relevance as it affects a host’s susceptibility to viral infection, thereby reducing the risk of respiratory infections.146 Multiple studies regarding the potential benefits of vitamin E to COVID-19 patients indicated that vitamin E and C in combination could be a beneficial antioxidant therapy for cardiac implications of COVID-19.1,164–166 In the absence of any known effective treatment for COVID-19, nutrients and food supplements that exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects can lay significant protective function.

Despite its possible prospects, a lot still needs to be considered as the use of this nutrient will require a long route in its achievement as a successful therapeutic measure for COVID-19 patients. Recently, researchers started to observe the link between individuals with vitamin K status and COVID-19 outcomes. Coagulopathy is one of the primary features of poor outcomes in patients who develop sepsis from an infection. In the same vein, low vitamin K level appears to be associated with increased elastin degradation,191,202 preferably degrading the lung tissue, resulting in breathing difficulty in COVID-19 patients. Since COVID-19 patients with severity are associated with co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, or hypertension, which are linked to reduced vitamin K levels, it is hypothesized that low vitamin K levels might be associated with severity in COVID-19.203–205

Finally, an exit strategy for a path back to normalcy is required. It should involve a collective effort towards research and development of new treatments and successful vaccine that stems from vitamins and nutrients that can influence viral infections and protect human health. Therefore, it is crucial to develop more effective and practical approaches to investigate the relevance of fat-soluble vitamins as an adjunct therapy for the COVID-19 pandemic.

Five- to Ten-Year Expectation

Globally, the rapid outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic is a public health concern as this experience disrupts everyday life activity. Notwithstanding its invasion, minimal evidence-based treatment options are currently available for this infection. Meanwhile, many studies are beginning to recognize the role of different fat-soluble vitamins and micronutrients in combating coronavirus infection. Research has proven their capacity to minimize the severity of this infection. Recent surveys have expatiated that the deficiency of one or more of these vitamins compromises immune response and could cause detrimental effects to the patient.

However, studies have stated that nutritional strategies for enhancing immunity against viral diseases like COVID-19 have been underexplored, and using these patterns as a therapeutic measure should not be ignored. For instance, the uptake of vitamin C with its prophylactic effect and its ability to exert immune response for growth and repair of body tissues and its ability to reduce lower respiratory tract infection susceptibility is highly beneficial.33,34 Several evidence support the view that COVID-19 disease is particularly detrimental to the health of vulnerable populations like the elderly, pregnant women, and children. Furthermore, older people with long-term chronic conditions of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc., are well predisposed to COVID-19 infection. The uptake of vitamin E by these patients is likely to help their immune function, increasing infection resistance, thus decreasing mortality. One more study investigated the potential benefits of vitamin E to COVID-19 patients.1 Additionally, it was reported that vitamin C regenerates the antioxidant potential of vitamin E,2,3 and, when administered in combination (vitamin E and C) among critically ill patients, found to be beneficial including COVID-19-infected cases.1,210–215 Despite these facts, there is limited evidence that suggests the use of vitamin E as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19. Therefore, a clear need to investigate these vitamins’ prospects as an effective measure in the treatment of COVID-19 is vital. Although investigations into the effect of vitamin K still seem vague, studies have stated that patients admitted into ICU are potentially at risk of having low levels of this vitamin. Also, there is a need to verify these claims as records have shown that administering vitamin K supplements to patients during ICU admissions might reduce the risk of vitamin K deficiency and further health complications.200

Finally, even though big data have been presented in prior studies regarding the efficacy of fat-soluble vitamins in immunomodulation and lowering the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19, more detailed clinical pieces of evidence are required to define the use of these supplements in prevention, prophylaxis or reduction of severity in COVID-19 cases. We hope that in the next 5–10 years, clearer, well-established, and substantial evidence to support the prevention and treatment of diseases like coronavirus and other future epidemics will be obtainable.

Author Contributions

All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis, and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising, or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.


The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.


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